Category Archives: News

LymeClear Protocol launched


APRIL 2020 – A promising new natural treatment protocol for Lyme disease and co-infections has been launched. The protocol takes care of some of difficult to remove pathogens including mold, parasites and worms. A home testing system is provided so you can track your progress against your personalised plan adapted to your needs. The protocol addresses the main causes of treatment failure that have prevented many people from recovering from this disease.

A successful pilot in 2019 confirmed the efficacy of the LYMECLEAR protocol. Over 80% of patients reported their health improved by 90% within the first two weeks.

The LYMECLEAR protocol is currently available for home users via  Skype / ZOOM / Telephone  based therapist support.

A 14-21 day retreat in Thailand will be available as soon as travel restrictions are lifted.

The LymeClear Protocol

The LYMECLEAR™ protocol is easy to follow, with step-by-step, written instructions PLUS 4 hours online guidance and support from a certified LYMECLEAR™ Practitioner.

Why other Lyme Disease Solutions Fail

  1. Lack of a comprehensive, structured program
  2. Ineffective or inadequate solutions
  3. Over-emphasis on killing invaders
  4. Failing to address the underlying cause
  5. Unreliable and inadequate testing
  6. Toxicity – “You can’t heal a dirty body”
  7. Weak Immune system
  8. Damaged intestinal lining
  9. Hyper-sensitivity and reactivity
  10. Genetic and individual differences
  11. Undetected Parasites
  12. Nutritional deficiencies
  13. Physical, emotional or environmental stress
  14. Complex conditions… MCAS, MTHFR, Mold, etc..
  15. Inadequate or no support

How to obtain the LymeClear Protocol

There are two options available:

  1. Home Treatment – For clients who prefer LymeClear at home
  2. Retreat – Clients who prefer to attend one of our retreats which is recommended for complex cases over 10 years exposure to Lyme.

Patients interested in Lymeclear should contact the LymeClear team to obtain our 10-page LYMECLEAR™ introductory brochure.

  1. Calling out the Contact Centre on +44 121 502 7518
  2. By sending an email to
  3. Through our website chat service. Click Here
  4. Though our Facebook group Click Here

Do You Have Lyme Disease?

DOWNLOAD the Horowitz Lyme Disease Questionnaire now. If your scores indicate Lyme disease, please get in touch to understand how we can help.

How do you monitor Progress during treatment?

We provide our clients with a home testing kit that they can use to track their progress.

Can you provide Lab Tests before and after treatment? 

Lyme disease lab tests can be arranged with leading US/German labs to confirm your Lyme disease is in remission.

Lyme Parasites & Worms Facebook Group

Join our Facebook group that discusses parasites and worms and how these affect lyme disease.

Facebook Group:

Lyme Parasites & Worms
Public group · 711 members
Join Group
Share knowledge about parasites that are thought to be one of the main causes of Lyme Disease persistence.

Hyperthermia to be an extraordinary tool for treating Lyme infections

lyme-disease-symptoms 2

Hyperthermia has been widely used in Europe and some other parts of the world as a viable alternative cancer treatment.   Whole body hyperthermia involves incubating the entire body inside of a thermal chamber and heating it to 107-108 degrees Fahrenheit, and then cooling it over a period of six hours, during which time the heat kills of any cancer cells and microbes deep within the organs and tissues. Local and regional hyperthermia heat specific areas of the body where tumors are located.

When combined with other treatments, local, regional and whole body hyperthermia have a high rate of success in treating various cancers—even late stage cancers that have failed to respond to more conventional treatments.

Of late, a few practitioners have also discovered hyperthermia to be an extraordinary tool for treating Lyme infections, especially Bartonella, Borrelia, Mycoplasma, and viruses. One of these practitioners, Friedrich Douwes, MD, a renowned integrative cancer doctor in Bad Aibling, Germany accidentally discovered that hyperthermia could kill Lyme infections over 13 years ago, when two of his cancer patients who also had Lyme disease saw their Lyme infections go into remission after he treated them for cancer using hyperthermia!

Shortly thereafter, Dr. Douwes stumbled upon research that showed that syphilis spirochetes–which are similar to Borrelia spirochetes- were susceptible to heat and would die when the body’s temperature was elevated to 106 degrees Fahrenheit, as in hyperthermia.  He then surmised that Lyme spirochetes might also be susceptible to heat, and so continued to treat Lyme patients using hyperthermia, with great success.

What’s more, Dr. Douwes discovered that the effects of hyperthermia were potentiated whenever he would administer IV antibiotics to his patients during the treatment, and that the treatments penetrated deep into the tissues, where they normally would not reach without hyperthermia. This was a revolutionary discovery for him, and has turned out to be a great benefit to his patients, many of whom who have been healed of Lyme after failing years of antibiotic tretament and/or other therapies.

In my upocming book, New Paradigms in Lyme Disease Treatment: 10 Top Doctors Reveal Healing Strategies that Work, (which will be released later this month!), Dr. Douwes describes his protocol for Lyme, which includes hyperthermia, in conjunction with other tools that he uses for Lyme treatment such as IV ozone, peptides and nutritional therapy. He has a high success rate in treating patients for Borrelia and Bartonella using these tools, although admits that hyperthermia is not as effective for Babesia.

Still, Dr. Douwes’ website has some incredible testimonials of people who have been healed after just one or two hyperthermia treatments, along with a couple of weeks of adjunct therapies, and his reputation as a renowned cancer expert has also opened the door for him to becomes widely successful at treating Lyme and related conditions.

Hyperthermia may not be a suitable treatment for everyone; indeed, there is a risk of side effects for a small percentage of people, although Dr. Douwes believes that these effects can be greatly minimized with conscientious preparation and planning. He contends that he has never had a patient experience serious side effects though, because he and his staff take great care to ensure that all necessary preparatory precautions are taken, before, during and after the treatment.

Dr. Douwes charges approximately 15,000 euros for two weeks of treatment, which includes the adjunct tools that he uses to heal his patients. While this is a lot of money for some people, considering that many people with Lyme disease spend well over that much money on treatment, year after year, 15,000 euros may be a bargain for others. What’s more, hyperthermia may be an important treatment for those who have failed more conventional regimens involving herbal remedies and antibiotics. Indeed, I believe that it may become a more popular treatment in the days to come as more and more people learn about it.

In any case, I encourage you to check out Dr. Douwes’ chapter in New Paradigms in Lyme Disease Treatment, where you can learn more about this new, cutting edge Lyme treatment that is setting thousands of people free from this insidious disease.

Bioresonance, Biophoton, Ozone & Oxygen therapy in Germany

Dale and Annabel travelled to a leading Bioresonance Naturopathic clinic in Essen, Germany in July 2016 for Lyme & Co-infections treatment after antibiotics failed to resolve their health issues. This post captures their experience after two weeks of testing and treatment.

Latest News:  

Treatment in Germany has confirmed the pathogens that made them unwell. The will both need 6-12 weeks of treatment which will be carried out in UK with trips to Germany During August & September.

Essen Clinic.jpg
Treatment Room 1

To test, diagnose and begin treating Dale & Annie for Lyme disease and multiple co-infections

An initial two weeks (in Germany) followed by several weeks of BICOM Bioresonance therapy in the UK.

Naturopathic approach using Bioresonance, Biophoton Therapy, Ozone-Oxygen Therapies, Acupuncture, Homeopathy, Snake Poison Therapy, High-Frequency Therapy, Radionics, Flower Essences Therapy, and many others, which may be applied in addition to Bioresonance when required.


Stage 1: 11-23rd July 2016 (2 weeks in Germany to Test, Diagnose and begin treatment)

Stage 2:  25th July 2016 (Continue Treatment in UK supported by MJ in Germany)

Naturopathic Private Clinic
Matthias Jacob and Ruediger Grabosch
Kunkelsberg 34
45239 Essen
Phone: +49 – 201 – 32 03 49 40

The clinic is located in a converted house connected to the therapist’s home in a quiet residential neighborhood close to a reservoir approx 20 mins drive south of Essen, Germany.

Therapy €80 per hour. Allow up to 5 hours each per week.= €400 per person however the therapist can cover 2 people for the price of one !!  So buddy up to share the costs.
Testing €150 one off per person
O2/O3 Infusions – €30 each
Accommodation: Min €350 per week for 2/3 bed apartment
Travel: €230 fuel, ferry


BICOM Optima Bioresonance – Testing  was carried out using a Bioresonance BICOM machine. Our therapist has over 1000 ampules to detect pathogens (Virus, bacteria, mold, parasites etc) and others that can support depleted & acute (diseased) organs.

Futher Details Here


Metapathia Hunter NLS (Non Linear System) Scanner – A key tool in our “home” clinic is this amazing testing device Metapathia  Hunter which provides insight into the stressed areas of the body. This gave us a good indication of where the stressed areas were and a good indication of which pathogen was causing the problem.It also confirmed the test results from the Bicom Bioresoance test.


The Hunter scans the body using biofeedback headphones. The results of the scan are compared to a database of over 2,000+ pathogens (including lyme and many co-infections). The scanner highlightes the potential cause of stress or disease in all organis and systems of the body.

NLS devices are being purchased by more and more therapists as they provide a very quick (10-15mins) non invasive and detailed insight into the patients health. This testing device compliments the Bioresonance ampule testing approach.

The NLS scan presents a visual map of the body and organs. Coloured symbols show healthy, stressed or diseased points which can be analysed further to determine the cause.

Hunter NLSThis technology was developed in Russia and while it’s still experimental, it’s being used increasingly in hospitals and clinics around the world.

This device provides real-time feedback and validation of treatment benefits without having to wait weeks or months for traditional tests.

The picture above shows the mitochondria in the Lymph Nodes are chronical due to Lyme Disease, Epstein Bar (Mono) and Allergies which results in Chronic Tiredness Syndrome (This must be a Russian term for CFS/ME).

Futher Details Here


Treatments used in the clinic:

– Bionic 880 Biophoton treatment
– BICOM Bio-resonance
– Radionics
– Oxygen & Ozone IV infusions
– Snake Poison Therapy
– Bach Flower Treatment (Homeopathy)

Bio Photon Treatment – The BIONIC 880 provides energy and eliminates intracellular bacteria (I.E. Lyme disease bacteria Borrelia).

BICOM Therapy – This consists of three treatments:

  • Built-in Programmes (1000+ specific programmes to address particular issues)
  • BICOM Pathogen Ampules – For treating the pathogens found during testing. This stops pathogens communicating so they can be detected and removed by the immune system. Ampules exist for 30+ Borrelia strains, Biofilm, Cyst and many co-infections.
  • DMI Treatment – Provide energy to support the body remove pathogens. Utilises Schumann Wave therapy as used in the space station which is built into BICOM machine. This boosts energy in chronically ill patients to help them recover.

IV Oxygen & Ozone infusions – These increase the level of oxygen in the blood to reduce inflammation, kill bacteria and improve the blood acid/alkalinity.

Radionics Treatment – Details to follow

Snake Poison Therapy – This is planned for the second week. When the poison is removed from Snake Venom it leave behind a rich source of enzymes. More details to follow as we learn more about this treatment.

Futher Details Here

Supporting Treatments:

  • Diet – We consulted with UK based Australian Naturopath & Dietitian (Jenny Blondel) who has helped many Lyme patients and is an expert in diet, gut health, hormones, trace elements, supplements, herbals remedies and many other subjects. She is also a Bioresonance practitioner so she can work collaboratively with other Bioresonance therapists who live nearer to the patient. Both Dale & Annie are on a strict Paleo diet avoiding foods that Bioresonance testing has shown they have an allergy to. Annabel is a Vegan which coupled with her many allergies (Dairy, Milk, Gluten) makes it very difficult to plan meals and eat a balanced diet.
  • Gut Health –  Enzymes are being looked at to restore their damaged gut flora. Once improvements have been achieved, Pre-Biotics will be prescribed followed by probiotics.
  • Herbs – A specific mix of Herbs was created to address their needs. This is a much more convenient to take than Cowden Protocolas you only have one thing to take 2 or 3 times a day. Annie says its the worst thing she has ever tasted.
  • Vitamins – Jenny has prescribed Annie & Dale with several vitamins including Iron, Magnesium, Vitamin D and C.
  • Detox – Primary weapon is Toxaprevent. We are also looking to purchase an FIR Tent, Enterosgel and other detox options to compliment Toxaprevent.
  • Bach Flowers – These are being taken by both to minimise the effects of treatment and to support the healing process. Selection of the best flowers carried out by the therapist using Bioresonance testing.

Futher Details Here

Treatment Approach:

Annie, age 20

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Annie undergoing treatment in Germany

  • Diagnosis
    • Therapist testing confirmed she still has Lyme plus several other bacteria, viruses, mold’s & Parasites.
    • Allergic to everything.
  • Treatment
    • BICOM Bioresonance treatment – 10 treatments
    • Biophoton treatment (3 days a week, 6 treatments)
    • Ozone IV treatment  (One day only, stopped due to fear of needles).
    • No Herxheimer reactions from treatment  although tired and sleeping 10-12 hours a day up from 8 (average).
  • Test Results
    • To Follow
  • Duration of Treatment
    • 6 Weeks if Daily Therapy
    • Guestimated 8-12 weeks if treatment 2 days a week, longer without access to Biophoton & Ozone

Dale, Age 30


  • Diagnosis
    • Test results showed NO LYME disease but many viruses including Epstein Bar (EBV) that may be causing persistent or chronic relapsing Hepatitis in his liver.
    • We assume the antibiotics he was on for a year has cleared the Lyme or less likely, that his multiple positive Lyme tests were false positives caused by viruses .
  • Treatment
    • BICOM Bioresonance treatment to build up organs Day 1-6
    • The Therapist says Dale is too weak from years of chronic illness to start the elimination of pathogens.
    • Oxygen IV infusions 4 times in week 1 has clearly improved oxygen flow to body which is looking a healthy pink again.
  • Test Results
    • Dales Liver is showing signs of stress (Black Squares) before the treatment started.
    • The NLS Hunter 4025 scan below indicates Hepatitis as the casue of the Stress (Black Squares in the picture below) and was confirmed with Bioresonance Ampule Testing.
    • The Bioresonance ampule test for Hepatitis C was also positive, so this virus and one other key virus explains his continued ill health.
    • IMG_8694
      Liver stressed

Overview or Pathogens Identified.


  • Epstein-Barr
  • Heppatitis C  (+Hep Non A/B positive)
  • Herpes simplex
  • Herpes zoster
  • Flu Virus 1987, 1989, 1991
  • Cocksackie Mix
  • Kerato Konjunctivitis  (Adeno Virus)
  • mononucleosis  ( glandular fever).
  • Adeno  Virus
  • V-DarmKatarrh


  • Mould fungus
  • COW’s milk
  • Wheat


  • Staphylococci
  • Mycoplasmas
  • Helicobacter  Pylori


  • Candida alb.
  • Microsporum canis

Heavy Metal

  • Aluminium
  • Cadmium
  • Palladium
  • Mercury
  • Plutonium
  • Tin


  • Dysbacteria Coli
  • Gastroduodenitis – Needs to be cleared before heavy Metals ??
  • Inflammation small  intestine
  • Parasites  (Fasciolopsis buski and Taenia Solium)
  • Alcohol methylicus
  • Fermentation 36%

Other stressors

  • Chakras
  • Focal toxicoses
  • Catalysts   KIDNEY
  • Catalysts Il  KP1,5,6
  • TMJ Joint/ Hyoid bone
  • Nutritional point 92 or 72


  • Vitamins
  • Minerals
  • Trace elements
  • Essential Fatty Acids


  • Water vein / Geopathic stress
  • Electrosmog
  • Radioactivity
  • Vaccination stress
  • Food additives
  • Laterality disorder
  • other Toxins
  • External garbage
  • Energy level: 13-26%

Treatment Details

Many people have asked for details about the treatment. Here is a link the provides details of the Treatment should you wish to know more.

Travelling & Accommodation:

If you’re interested to know about travelling to this German clinic read on….


  • Traveled by Car – It took 10 Hours with an overnight stay in Brugges.
    • London to Brugges – 5 hours light traffic
    • Brugges to Essen – 5 hours in heavy traffic.
  • Apartment I booked on was a disaster as it only had two and not the three beds shown in misleading photos.
  • I found a new apartment nearby, booked it and moved in within 1 hour. Perfect location overlooking lake. A two Bedroom spacious place with a washroom/spare bed which is Dad’s room now. A bit pricey but if it keeps them happy will be worth it.

Lessons Learned 

  • Buy a German SIM card from a store and not petrol station. They need registering and you have to add a package for data costs 15 Euros for 2 Gb on Vodafone.
  • Get a German Satnav with mapping (try free NAVMII Germany) on your phone before you arrive. My BMW satnav has no local road detail made travel a pain.
  • Bring diet specific food with you. Trying to source gluten free took 2 days.
  • Arrive the day before to get settled in before treatment starts
  • Confirm accommodation details  via phone call to make sure the property is suitable.
  • Don’t trust pictures shown online websites as they often mislead.
  • Driving over allows you to bring a few home comforts, so although a hassle it’s worth it if you don’t mind driving in mainland Europe.

Bioresonance Testing & Therapy

What is Bio-Resonance Frequency?

Two of the greatest thinkers our planet has ever seen have both been quoted on the importance of Energy, Frequency and Vibration to all life forms.

tesla large                       Albert-Einstein-Energy

Bioresonance therapy was invented in Germany in 1977 and is used successfully in 55 countries worldwide. Today there are thousands of bioresonance therapy devices used around the world by doctors and health practitioners.

Bioresonance therapy has been found to be highly effective in treating many ailments, such as allergies, skin problems, chemical and heavy metal toxicity and other conditions including food, drug and alcohol addiction.

Significant new findings in science and technology have generated astounding innovations, which are now being applied to medicine.

Findings from the area of biophysical and quantum mechanics and quantum physics made available incredible options and have absolutely led to remarkable developments in technology. These findings are useful to make clear the basis of bioresonance therapy.

E = M*C squared is the relationship between matter and energy as we fully understand it from the genius of Albert Einstein.

Every form of matter is made up of energy and also emits energy. Each and every substance and every single cell of every part of the human body emits their energy too. This includes viruses, bacterias, allergens as well as substances that are beneficial to the body. They all have a highly specific, typical wavelength or frequency with entirely individual attributes.

This is termed the ‘frequency pattern’.

Cells communicate amongst each other – this is the way in which the frequency pattern is formed. We all live in an age of communication and information. Your body functions and regulates by itself because of communication and the communication exchanges amongst the various cells of the body.

This cell communications through ‘flashes of light’ and is by way of specific frequencies. In a healthy body, each cell can carry out its task and exchange information unhindered. Then again, stress induced substances or perhaps impacts can get in the way or obstruct this kind of communication between cells. Interfering substances such as chemical toxins, infections, germs, parasites, volatile organic compounds, pesticides and things that trigger allergies are able to disrupt communication between the cells.

The following can result in organic (physical) changes. This disturbed cell interaction prevents those cells performing effectively and we notice evidence of this through non-specific changes in well-being, both mental and physical exhaustion, persistent tiredness, skin disturbances and eruptions, irritable digestive tract and even allergic reactions.

Bioresonance therapy aims to decrease the overall amount of disturbed frequencies. Frequency patterns that cause sickness can be modified into healthy, therapeutically effective frequency patterns, thus empowering healthy cell communication once again.

This is by no means a comprehensive list but it gives an clear idea of what can be achieved away from pills and potions that treat symptoms not the cause.

Some people feel energy more than others, personally I’m not someone who feels a great deal however if you speak to a Reiki master or another type of holistic therapist who have experienced a Bio-Resonance treatment, they will tell you how amazing it is.

You can read a full review of a Bio-Resonance treatment by Jess Lewis founder of by clicking the link below

Bio resonance therapy

There are different ways you can get the benefits from Bio-Resonance frequency. There are practitioners all around the world who can treat you privately. What makes each treatment different is the technology they use and also the protocols they use. There are also devices you can wear that will give you beneficial Bio-resonance 24 hours a day 7 days a week.


Here’s What People Have To Say After a Bio Resonance Treatment






How Does Bio Resonance Frequency Work?

What exactly is the ‘Frequency Machine’?
The “Frequency Machine” is an amazing and unique device that has been specifically designed to actively scan and read something called the human ‘bio-field.’ The machine is capable of not only scanning an individual’s personal bio-field but it can also analyse the different frequencies emitted by the human body. The frequency readings, which are specific to each individual, are then transmitted to a laptop computer that is directly connected to the Frequency Machine. The results of the bio-field scan can then collected by a specially created software application and summarised visually on-screen. Our consultants, who have been extensively trained to interpret the results, are then able to talk through and explain the findings to each individual client. As no two people are the same the client can be sure of a highly personalised reading of their unique bio-field scan results.

What is a ‘Bio-Field’?
The human Bio-Field is simply another term for the energetic matrix that surrounds us all as living beings and is unique to each and every one of us as individuals. It links our bodily cellular activity together via neural pathways sometimes referred to as ‘meridians.’  This communication between cells can be thought of as a constantly flowing current that creates the vibratory aspects of our being. This energetic field can also be thought of as a kind of biological ‘superhighway’ that allows the DNA in our cells to communicate with each other faster than the speed of light thus maintaining a coherent holistic intelligence within the overall human organism.

It has long been known by physicists that everything in the entire universe has been created by energy, vibration and frequency. Even what we consider to be “solid matter” is in fact, at the quantum level, also composed of energy – and human beings are no exception. At the deepest level of our being, in the molecules that make up our cells, we are essentially ‘bundles of energy.’ As living beings we are therefore constantly exchanging energy with everything around us. This means we all have our own personal  ‘vibrational signature’ that is as unique as our fingerprint.

How might the Frequency Machine improve my health?
You have probably heard of the commonly used expression “You are what you eat.”  The reality is that you are also what you think! Your lifestyle, your thoughts your past and your present all have a very profound affect on how you function in this world on a day-to-day basis.  As we travel through this journey we call ‘life’ we all encounter or experience difficult or challenging situations. Many of these tough situations can cause stress and put our bodies into what is termed ‘fight or flight’ mode.

When the body is in this ‘fight or flight’ state our sensory nerve cells pass the perception of an external threat message from the external environment to a part of the brain called the hypothalamus.  Neuro-secretory cells within the hypothalamus then transmit a signal to the pituitary gland inciting cells there to release chemical messengers called peptides into the bloodstream. Simultaneously, the hypothalamus also transmits a nerve signal down the spinal cord. Both the chemical messengers and nerve impulse will travel to the same destination – the adrenal gland.  You are probably already familiar with the term ‘adrenalin rush’ which we experience when we are in a state of action or excitement. This feeling emanates from the adrenal gland.

These ‘chemical messengers’ are very important parts of our biological make up and help us to combat stress by flooding our bodies with the chemicals that feed our muscles with more energy. We excrete most of these substances naturally but some residues tend to get trapped in our soft tissues and internal organs. These ‘trapped’ adrenalin based chemicals tend to create toxins that emit a frequency that in turn can create a number of unwanted side effects. The frequency associated with the original stressful event permanently attaches us psychologically and biologically and unfortunately continues to create negative behaviours and thought patterns that repeat time and time again throughout our life.  Sight, sound, smell and taste are all triggers that can resurrect the original emotions and thus the chemical compounds connected to the original event.  In simple terms the Frequency Machine helps to stop these unwanted triggers from happening by re-programming the frequency that is causing the problem. So by re-programming the defective frequency and replacing it with a more ‘positive’ frequency the stubborn toxins are finally removed.

Think of the calmness you experience after a good massage during which your masseur is able to break down the lumps and crystals in your muscles to get rid of those uncomfortable stress knots. Afterwards you feel much more relaxed and you are advised to drink lots of water in order to help the body flush out the released toxins. Well, this is broadly the same principle applied by the Frequency Machine.

How does the Frequency Machine work?
The machine works by running lots of different frequencies throughout the body and then identifying any ‘negative’ frequencies that are being emitted. It then works to alter and retune the defective frequency. In simple terms it finds all the blockages and then clears them.  This means that once the programme is complete you still retain the memory of the original stressful situation but the associated ‘bad feelings’, negative behaviours and negative thought patterns that were associated with that memory have now been dissolved away.

Many of the physical conditions treated by the frequency machine result from residues of emotional stress picked up from the experiences of normal, everyday life.   No two people are the same and we all react and deal with everyday stress in different ways. That is why we all ‘store’ those stress chemicals in different ways.

Does it hurt?
Using the Machine, for most people, is a completely pain free experience. However, when the Frequency Machine treatment is activated there is a possibility you may feel a slight discomfort in certain areas of the body. This is nothing to be concerned about and simply means the machine is doing what it was designed to do. The discomfort arises because your body is simply letting go of historic painful emotions and associated toxins.

Example (Case History)

We recently treated one client who had deep-seated emotional anxieties attached to her ex-partner.

The client had been constantly in and out of hospital with various health issues that were still unresolved. When we treated her she mentioned that in the past she had suffered years of domestic violence. It was ten years since she had left that abusive relationship so she was convinced she had dealt wit all the associated issues. However, when we targeted that issue using the Frequency Machine she felt sharp stabbing pains in her side for about ten minutes as she was letting go of all the toxins and negative frequencies that were attached to that memory.  

Afterwards she felt a huge release of old buried emotions and became a little bit light headed. Very soon after her energy level improved, her blood sugars improved and her diabetes became easier to control. She hasn’t been back to hospital since.

Will I feel anything?
During a frequency treatment you may feel tingles or twinges in various parts of your body as the machine works to pulse away the negative frequencies stored in your soft tissues. These are temporary and stop as soon as the treatment is completed.  After the treatment some clients report that they feel a little tired which is not surprising as the body has just processed and released years of anxiety and stress. It is always advisable to drink plenty of water after a treatment to help re-hydrate the body and flush out all the toxins that have been released.

Where does treatment take place?
Clients have the option to visit us in person if they wish – or alternatively a treatment can be conducted remotely if the client is able to post to us a small hair sample or fingernail clippings. Both hair and nail clippings contain enough DNA for the machine to analyse. The machine will read the bio-field of the samples and use this data to calculate the frequencies that need to be transmitted back to the client.  To date 65% of our clients have been treated this way with the same excellent results as those who visit us in person.

Although some people might be sceptical about the concept of ‘long distant healing’ there is actually a substantial amount of independent evidence that this type of healing is equally as effective as face-to-face healing. It is based on a scientifically proven concept called ‘Quantum Entanglement’ (See Appendix One below for explanation). For those who may still be in any doubt, our co-founder, Angela K Wright MBE, was treated in her home in Brisbane, Australia from our premises in Manchester in the UK using remote healing based on her submitted DNA samples. Following the treatment she was so impressed by the results that she decided to invest in the business.

How many sessions does it take?
Everyone is affected by the trials and stresses of modern life in different ways and as such each individuals condition is experienced at different psychological levels. For example, conditions like anxiety, stress, phobias and addictions etc can usually be dealt with in one or two sessions. Treating certain physical conditions like Arthritis or ME may take more sessions. Top-up treatments may also be required from time to time if the client so wishes.

When will I start to notice a difference?
Again this depends on the individual and there is no ‘standard’ answer. Most of our clients usually report feeling instantly calmer and relaxed immediately following a treatment. Others report feeling a difference within a few hours of receiving a treatment.  Some clients feel no immediate tangible difference until they later find themselves in a particular situation or circumstance and then realise that they acted and felt very different than they did before. This demonstrates the real benefit of the Frequency Machine.

Why is a Frequency Machine treatment better than a traditional treatment?
It would be wrong to claim that the Frequency Machine is the perfect solution for everyone as we are all unique individuals with different and sometimes complex medical histories. It is useful to note however that the history of ‘traditional’ western medicine is based on the twin concepts of ‘prevention’ or ‘cure’. In simple terms this means that the leading drugs companies are constantly trying to develop more and more pills to ‘fix’ our medical problems. In short they are addressing the symptoms rather than the underlying cause of illness or disease.

Our focus is more aligned to the Eastern principles of health i.e. finding out what is the root cause behind an individual’s health problems. If we can fix the root cause of a physical or psychological ailment then this is clearly a better solution than filling the body with pills and potions that often only bring temporary relief rather than a long term cure.

In the West our culture views disease as a physical manifestation of an underlying problem. But in the East, for thousands of years, the belief is that disease starts with an imbalance of our energy field which later manifests as a physical problem. Our Frequency Machine has been designed to work based on the wisdom of the East. It treats our energetic ‘self’ as a priority and rebalances our natural frequencies in order to cure our underlying health issues.

Bio-Resonance Frequency Wristbands

There is a cheaper alternative that having a private Bio-Resonance frequency treatment. For a very low cost you can now buy a wristband which provides the wearer with beneficial frequencies 24 hours per day, 7 days a week. I wear one of these wristbands myself and it really does make a difference.


Click here to find out more about Frequency Wristbands

To find a Bio-Resonance therapist fill out the contact us form

Great video which explains how frequency bands can work

Video explains how everything is not as it appears with science


Bioresonance Treatment Overview

Many people who are dissatisfied with a lack of progress on antibiotics and pharmaceutical (allopathic) medicines are considering Naturopathic and Integrative (Multiple) medicine for treatment. Energy Medicine (Generic name covering several technologies) is becoming popular for the treatment of Lyme disease and co-infections yet little is known about many of the options that exist.

This post provides an overview of the treatements we have encountered.

Bioresonance Therapy

Bioresonance machines allow a therapist to determine pathogens and stressors on the body to help select the most appropriate treatments, ensuring that the body’s elimination organs are built up to support the removal of toxins before Pathogens are removed. In many cases, by just unblocking the elimination organs (Liver, kidneys, Lymph nodes, connective tissue)  and boosting the immune system the body is able to clear many of the pathogens  naturally without treatment.Bioresonance machines cost up to £20,000, so most are purchased by therapists who offer treatments to patients typically charging £70-100 per hour.  A growing number of patients are purchasing Bioresonance machines for home use under the guidance of a trained therapist. A second-hand machine can be obtained for £5-10,000. A key benefit of Bioresonance Therapy is that you don’t need to learn how to use a complex machine before seeing benefits.

When surveyed in May  2016, 10 Bioresonance therapists from the UK, US, Germany & Holland reported that they have been able to eliminate Lyme disease in more than 70% of patients and reduce the symptoms in many the remaining 30%. One experienced US based therapist states that 30% of her Lyme patients don’t improve with the elimination of Lyme disease bacteria and that this is typically due to an undetected virus (mostly Herpes family) that cause symptoms that were assumed to be Lyme disease.

Bioresonance machines can be diagnostic or therapy only and sometimes they are combined into one unit, such as BICOM product (above) from German company Regumed.

Diagnostic Testing can be carried out on hundreds of pathogens very quickly. There are several approaches including the use of glass ampules and digitally encoded ampules (containing the resonant frequency of pathogens). The BICOM machine inverts the pathonogenic frequency  into a treatment which can be tested to confirm a “beneficial treatment” using heart rate variability monitoring, Keniesiology (muscle testing) or using a biofeedback device called a biotensor. Bioresonance testing is both fast, cheap and reliable with no waiting around for test results.

BIORESONANCE therapy can achieve major benefits in just two or three treatments. It is possible to use as a home treatment device with a few hours training. Less treatment is required compared to RIFE therapy and it’s thought to be more effective on a wider range of co-infections. A therapist will typically combine multiple treatment options into one treatment session. Further information on Bioresonance can be found here.

Some therapists combine Bioresonance therapy with Oxygen, Ozone, Biophoton therapy along with naturopathic treatments, supplements and herbs.

A novel approach used by some patients is to combine the use of both energy medicines with visits to a Bioresonance Therapist and regular RIFE treatments at home in between.

Some patients who have have been on pharmaceuticals for many years and are very weak may not be able to obtain a full recovery with Bioresonance treatment, but are likely to obtain some benefit.

A list of UK and European therapists offering Energy Medicine therapies will be made available shortly.

Figure 1. An older BICOM 2000 from Regumed


BICOM Picture 1

Bioresonance therapy is one of a number of procedures including homeopathy, acupuncture and other naturopathic procedures within the area of empirical healing.

The fundamental principles of the following hypothesis for bioresonance therapy have been confirmed by the latest discoveries in quantum mechanics and biophysics, but have not yet been accepted by current expert opinion within orthodox medicine.

The BICOM machine does not typically cause severe Herxeimer reactions so a patient can receive 3-5 treatments per week, although typically it’s one or two sessions per week as it can take several days to fully absorb the treatment.

Wave-particle duality

Discoveries made in quantum physics have revealed that all particles of matter share the characteristics of both waves and particles. This means that all substances – and therefore all cells, parts of the body, as well as viruses, bacteria, pollen, toxins, etc. – emit electromagnetic waves. Depending upon their nature, all substances have a quite specific typical wavelength or frequency with highly individual characteristics. This is known as a frequency pattern.

cells and matter

Cells communicate with one another

Living as we do in the communication and information age, it is time we faced up to the fact that the body can only function and regulate itself because communication and thus an exchange of information takes place between the various cells in the body. Research into biophotons is based on the assumption that cells communicate with one another by means of “flashes of light” (photon radiation). They exchange information over certain frequencies.

This information exchange functions unhindered in healthy bodies. As a result, each cell and each part of the body is able to do its job.

2 cells communicating via electro-magnetic frequencies

Stress-inducing factors or substances can impede communication between cells

If, however, undesirable substances (toxins, viruses, bacteria, etc.) or harmful radiation act on the body, these may impede communication between the cells.

pathogenic cell communication interrupts normal cell

Disrupted cell communication may result in organic changes

Where communication between cells is impaired, this will of course prevent those cells from functioning properly and we see evidence of this to varying degrees in the form of non-specific disturbances in general well-being, poor performance, chronic fatigue and later as organic changes plus related symptoms.

Symptoms frequently occur at the point where there was already a deficiency – often hereditary.


sick cells

Determining individual stresses accurately

The body’s extracellular fluid is not just the cells’ culture medium. It also serves as a “special rubbish dump” for harmful substances if the eliminating organs such as the liver/gallbladder, kidneys, intestines, etc. are overloaded. Since water is also an excellent store of information, information from harmful substances is also stored here however. This area is not easily accessible to laboratory procedures. These stresses can usually be tested very quickly and painlessly at the biophysical level. The Bicom device offers a valuable tool in this respect. In many cases it is possible to discover which stresses may cause health problems in the patient (e.g. bacteria, viruses, electronic smog, dental materials, allergens, etc.).

The stresses identified are treated with the appropriate frequency patterns using the BICOM device

The body’s own regulatory system can be supported and aided to a considerable extent by BICOM bioresonance therapy

healthy cell communication restored

Communication between the cells can take place once again unimpeded. Harmful substances can be released and excreted.

Frequency Patterns are stores in small glass ampules shown below. The Ampules are used for Testing the existence of a Pathogen and can also be used to eliminate the pathogen. The frequency pattern can also be digitized and stored in a software program so many therapists use a combination of glass and digital ampules.

A Therapist treating a complex illness like Lyme & Co-infections will typically have 500 or over 1000 ampules to understand why a patient is unwell. IT’s also possible to treat the patient without knowing what pathogens are affecting them by using their blood as a treatement, reversing the frequencies of pathogens found by the BICOM machine.


Bionic 880 The Photon Therapy 

bionic 880

This German medical device has been getting great reviews as it appears to force extracellular bacteria out of the cells so that the immune system can find and eliminate them. This machine causes Herxeimer reactions so treatment intensity must be built up to prevent toxins overloading the elimination organs.

The Bionic 880 uses pulsating Infra Red (IR) light, which can activate and regulate many metabolic processes. Light or Photon energy plays an extremely important role  to release  substances such as enzymes, prostaglandin, lymphocytes and hormones to heal and repair the body’s damaged cells. 

The radiated Photons are first absorbed by the skin, which multiply in the body and then spread into the brain and branch to the Nervous System (NS) as well as the spinal cord and harmonize the production of hormones e.g. endorphins (pain hormones) serotonin (appetite and mood hormone), cortisol (stress hormone) etc.

Many German doctors have used the Photon Therapy for the last 10 years. It is very popular therapy in Germany. Bionic 880 is a medical device and certified by German Medical Authority.

Bionic 880 is effective method of therapy. It is gentle, fast acting and totally free of side effects. It   could be used on adults as well as children for various conditions. It enhances the quality of life.

The treatment

It is a painless procedure and lasts for 30 to 45 minutes. The radiation head is simply positioned onto different locations of the body (meridians, acupuncture points and effected areas) to distribute the photons, which enhances the production of hormones, prostaglandin and enzymes. The process of healing starts from the first treatment.

Medical use of Bionic 880

  • Wound healing (including plastic surgery)
  • Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, 96% success rate
  • Cancer and Cancer aftercare
  • Stress, Depression, Insomnia and headaches/migraines
  • Weight loss, 90% success rate (photon stimulates the body’s production of Serotonin, which suppresses the appetite
  • Treatment to give up smoking, 86% success rate (photon harmonizes production of endorphins)
  • Bacterial and viral infection – including Lyme disease, 96% success rate
  • Local pain complaints – migraines, arthritic and rheumatic pains, Sciatica, Lumbago, Herpes Zoster, skin disease (psoriasis, rosacea and eczema), severe chronic diseases, Multiple sclerosis, leaky gut, IBS and others
  • Neuralgia (pain caused by sensory nerve disorder) e.g. Trigeminal Neuralgia
  • It is a great energy booster and generator

BIONIC 880 treatment is now available in the UK (Soutwest & London)

Oxygen & Ozone Injections

Oxygen & Ozone infusions – These increase the level of oxygen in the blood to reduce inflammation, kill bacteria and improve the blood acid/alkalinity. This is available in Germany – We have yet to find a clinic to offer this in the UK.

Oxygen IV Therapy

Ozone Infusion Therapy


3d NLS Scanner

Non Linear System

A new fast digital scanning technology is available which can give a full body healthcheck in 10 minutes. Based upon German and Russian technology, the  3d-NLS Testing device compliments and validates the findings of the ampule based testing approach. The pictures produced by the scan (see below) are highly detailed and the data collected about your health far exceeds existing technology. This is a medical breakthrough that few know about in the west due to FDA protectionism of the US pharma industry, who see this technology as a threat to their symptom relief business model.  LINK

Hunter NLSFig 1. A typical NSL scan showing the Mitochondria under stress from Herpes (Mono) & Lyme disease.


RIFE Therapy

RIFE machine was not part of our therapy however it will be considered as a backup device to support Bioresonance.

A RIFE machine can take months and sometimes years to achieve benefits, so many people purchase their own machine and start treating themselves from home.

RIFE machines prices range from £300-£5000+ and the most advanced RIFE machines, which incorporate a plasma tube, cost between £2500-£5000. A  lower cost yet highly effective approach is to build or purchase a Doug Coil machine; the parts can be purchased for around £1-1,500. One of the lowest cost RIFE machines with a huge following is called the Spooky 2, however for Lyme disease treatment the Chinese manufacturer suggests a package including two devices and a plasma tube, which costs approx £2000.

RIFE machines typically cause a Herxeimer reaction so treatment must be given slowly to allow time for the body to detox the bio-toxins produced by the die-off of Lyme bacteria.

RIFE machines only offer therapy and have no diagnostic (test) capability. When purchased, the owner has to experiment to see if they obtain a  Herxeimer reaction or benefit from a reduction in symptoms after using the machine. The low cost Spooky 2 Rife machine offers a basic heart rate monitor biofeedback testing facility, however little has been written about how effective this testing method is.

RIFE machines cannot be used as a diagnostic device to help determine the right treatment, check treatment duration nor confirm that treatment is working. New RIFE machine owners are often at a loss to determine how to treat themselves and rely upon social media for support.

Cannabis Treatments for Lyme Disease

Article by MR Story by Michael Cheng

Lyme Disease and Cannabis: What can start as a simple bite from a tick can lead to a relentless disease. Lyme disease is a crippling, mysterious sickness that can be difficult to treat due to the underlying symptoms that come with the medical condition. For those who aren’t familiar with the illness, it is caused by spirochetal bacteria of the Borrelia genus. The microscopic bugs have the ability to hide in deep tissue and change forms, making them extremely hard to eradicate.

In addition to dealing with the medical condition, individuals must endure the devastating side effects that come with traditional treatments, such as daily doses of morphine, tramadol, or oxycodone. Reliance on conventional forms of medication leave some patients weak, depressed and addicted to the drugs that are designed to help them cope with the disorder. According to the International Lyme and Associated Diseases Society, current treatments for the illness are not effective, with 40 percent of the courses resulting in a 40 percent relapse rate. This figure increases dramatically when the treatment is delayed or postponed.

Managing Lyme Disease Symptoms

content_cannabis_lyme_disease_1Recently, patients suffering from the disease have tried using marijuana to treat various manifestations that come with the sickness. Such individuals typically use weed to deter drug dependency, or alleviate the side effects of common treatments, including nausea and lack of appetite. Many patients are seeking alternative forms of medicine, due to the deteriorating effects of strong prescription meds. Some felt that their bodies were breaking down twice as fast, when simultaneously dealing with the disease and the powerful drugs.

In the past few years, numerous accounts of patients testing cannabis as a viable form of treatment has surfaced online. Some started experimenting with smoking the plant, and moved on to using a vaporizer or eating edibles. “In the hospital, I have needed to have morphine or lorazepam through an IV to accomplish what smoking two grams of cannabis does on the comfort of my couch, in a fraction of the time,” explained Alexis, a patient diagnosed with late-stage Lyme disease.

“I was dealing with major nausea, weakness, insomnia, horrific night terrors/nightmares, hearing things, hallucinations and wretched headaches, all of which were side effects of the medicine,” said Lydia Niederwerfer, a Lyme disease survivor.

Cannabis Oil and Lyme Disease

Medical Cannabis ( Marijuana ) oil ready for consumptionIt is important to consider that cannabis may not serve as a direct cure for the disease. But in some cases, patients are able to almost make a full recovery, using potent forms of marijuana, such as pastes and oils. Shelly White, a patient with Lyme disease, was having up to 10 seizures per day from the illness. Smoking weed completely stopped the seizures, and a month of cannabis oil treatment helped her return to work and school.

Marijuana can also be used to ease depression in Lyme disease sufferers. This is critical for patients because suicide is the leading cause of death for individuals diagnosed with the condition, mainly from the onslaught of depression due to hormonal and chemical imbalances.

Bioresonance and Live Blood Analysis

In April 2016, my daughter Annabel had her blood checked using a combination of Bio-Resonance & Live Blood analysis by  Leeds based organisation RESON8 

We concluded that as the standard blood tests for Lyme and co-infections were known to be unreliable and that their selection by doctors was at best “hit and miss guess work”, it made sense to organise further  broad reaching “tests” that might identify co-infections and other pathogens that were contributing to her poor state of health. We were willing to try new experimental and old fashioned techniques keeping an open mind.

The following is a list of tests that she has undertaken and a few more we are trying to arrange. This list is changing all the time as we learn more about testing.

Blood Testing – Borrelia and other pathogens


  • Borrelia by LTT from Infectolab in 2014 (Positive Lyme Test Result)
  • CD57 Test (Score of 20 is highly indicative of Lyme)
  • Bioresonance – Diacom – Showed Borrelia & Ascaris as the main pathogens
  • Bioresonance – BICOM – Showed Borrelia, Mycoplasma, 3 other bacteria & Fungus and Ascaris parasite (See Below)
  • Live Blood Analysis [Results shown Below)

To be Arranged – These are all hard to arrange so no dates yet

  • Microscopy using Borrelia DNA FISH Probes or Fluorescent Antibody Staining
  • Abbot Plexid (advanced DNA testing)
  • Next Generation Sequencing (Experimental not commerical)

Live Blood Analysis

We  arranged to have Annabel’s blood filmed so I could ask experts familiar with analyzing blood of Borrelia patients to check if there are any anomalies that needed to be investigated.

This first sequence of pictures were taken  30 minutes after her blood was drawn from a finger prick blood sample.

Many of the cells are showing signs of toxicity or dehydration (spiky appearance) the exact cause still to be determined.

In the last picture taken several hours later, It looks like a spirochete was emerging from one of the red blood cells [Awaiting confirmation from Experts].

The results of the BICOM Bio-resonance blood test follow these pictures.







Question: Do these white blood cells here look normal ? Is this a Biofilm ?



b) Several hours later – String like objects were emerging from the cells. Left of middle cell.

AC Strings2

Biresonance BICOM Analysis

The results of the BICOM Bio-resonance  analysis test showed the following: 

  • Borrelia
    • Borrelia  WAI
    • Borrelia  Lonestari
    • Borrelia  Recurrentis
    • Borrelia  Burgdorferi
  • Mycoplasma Mix
  • Bacilli
  • Bordetella
  • Fusobacterium
  • Gamma Herpes Vir. (Eppstein-Barr)
  • Ascaris larvae
  • Aspergillus clavatus
  • Aspergillus flavus
  • Aspergillus fumigatus
  • Aspergillus fumigatus FT4
  • Aspergillus niger
  • Aspergillus oryzae
  • Aspergillus parasiticus
  • Aspergillus repens
  • Aspergillus versicolor
  • Fungi spores – Aspergillus
  • Fungi spores – Cladosporium
  • Fungi spores – Mucor
  • Fungi spores – Ustilago
  • Fungi spores (mix 1)
  • Fungi spores (mix 2)
  • Fungi spores (mix 3)


We did not have time to test for Bartonella and Thyroid so plan to include this in the next visit.


300 Medical Conditions Related to Lyme Borreliosis

General Library Articles

User Rating: / 12

A Disease Frequently Misdiagnosed

Katrina Tang, M.D., HMD, founder and Director of Research at the Sierra Integrative Medicine Clinic in Reno, Nevada, states that Lyme disease eludes many doctors because of its ability to mimic many other diseases. According to an informal study conducted by the American Lyme disease Alliance (ALDA), most patients diagnosed with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) are actually suffering from Lyme disease. In a study of 31 patients diagnosed with CFS, 28 patients, or 90.3%, were found to be ill as a result of Lyme.

Dr. Paul Fink, past president of the American Psychiatric Association, has acknowledged that Lyme disease can contribute to every psychiatric disorder in the Diagnostic Symptoms Manual IV (DSM-IV). This manual is used to diagnose psychiatric conditions such as attention deficit disorder (ADD), antisocial personality, panic attacks, anorexia nervosa, autism and Aspergers syndrome (a form of autism) to name a few.

List of Conditions

The following 365 medical conditions are linked to Lyme disease (Borreliosis) either by cause or association. The list only includes medical conditions appearing in articles published in a medical journal. Click on the condition to view information on the article.


Abdominal pseudo-eventration
Abdominal wall weakness
Acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (ACA)
Acute Acral Ischemia
Acute conduction disorders
Acute coronary syndrome
Acute exogenous psychosis
Acute febrile illness
Acute hemiparesis
Acute ischaemic pontine stroke
Acute meningitis
Acute myelo-meningo-radiculitis
Acute myelitis
Acute pediatric monoarticular arthritis
Acute peripheral facial palsy
Acute perimyocarditis
Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE)
Acute pyogenic arthritis
Acute reversible diffuse conduction system disease
Acute septic arthritis
Acute severe encephalitis
Acute transitory auriculoventricular block
Acute transverse myelitis
Acute urinary retention
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

Allergic conditions
Allergic conjunctivitis
Alzheimer’s Disease
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS – Lou Gehrig’s Disease)
Anorexia nervosa
Anterior optic neuropathy
Antepartum fever
Asymmetrical hearing loss
Ataxic sensory neuropathy
Atraumatic spontaneous hemarthrosis
Atrioventricular block
Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD)
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)


Back pain without radiculitis
Bannwarth’s Syndrome
Behcet’s disease
Bell’s Palsy
Benign cutaneous lymphocytoma
Benign lymphocytic infiltration (Jessner-Kanof)
Bilateral acute confluent disseminated choroiditis
Bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome
Bilateral facial nerve palsy
Bilateral follicular conjunctivitis
Bilateral keratitis
Bilateral papilloedema
Bilateral retrobulbar optic neuritis
Biphasic meningoencephalitis
Bipolar Disorder
Brain Tumor
Brainstem tumor
Brown recluse spider bite
Brown-Sequard syndrome


Cardiac apoptosis
Cardiac Disease
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Catatonic syndrome
Cauda equina syndrome
Central vestibular syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia
Cerebral atrophy
Cerebro-vascular disease
Cervical facet syndrome
Cheilitis granulomatosa
Chiasmal optic neuritis
Chronic encephalomyelitis
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Chronic muscle weakness
Chronic urticaria
Cerebellar ataxia
Cogan’s syndrome
Complete flaccid paraplegia
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)
Concomitant neuroretinitis
Conduction disorder
Conus medullaris syndrome
Coronary aneurysm
Cortical blindness
Cranial Neuritis
Cranial polyneuritis
Cutaneous B-cell lymphoma
Cutaneous marginal-zone B-cell lymphoma
Cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma (SALT)


Demyelinating disorders
Diaphragmatic paralysis
Diffuse fasciitis
Dilated cardiomyopathy
Disseminated choroiditis
Dorsal epiduritis


Endogenous paranoid-hallucinatory syndrome
Eosinophilic fasciitis (Shulman syndrome)
Epileptic crises
Epstein Barr
Erythema chronicum migrans
Exanthema (local and generalized)
Extrapyramidal disorders


Facial diplegia
Fascicular tachycardia
Fatal adult respiratory distress syndrome
Fetal death
Focal nodular myositis
Frontotemporal atrophy


Generalised motor neuron disease
Geniculate neuralgia
Giant cell arteritis
Granuloma annulare
Guillain-Barré Syndrome


HLA-B27 negative sacroiliitis
Hallucinations (Painful)
Headaches (severe)
Hearing loss
Heart block
Hemophagocytic syndrome
Hepatic disorders
Herniated discs
Holmes-Adie syndrome
Horner’s syndrome
Human necrotizing splenitis



Idiopathic atrophoderma of Pasini and Pierini (IAPP)
Idiopathic facial paralysis
Infarction pain
Impaired Brainstem response
Infantile sclero-atrophic lichen
Infectious Mononucleosis
Infiltrating lymphadenosis benigna cutis
Inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid syndrome
Inflammatory choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM)
Internuclear ophthalmoplegia
Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis
Intracerebral haemorrhage
Intracranial aneurysm
Intracranial hypertension
Intracranial mass lesions
Intrauterine growth retardation
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Isolated acute myocarditis
Isolated lymphadenopathy
Isolated neuritis of the sciatic nerve
Isolated oculomotor nerve paralysis
Isolated posterior cord syndrome


Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis




Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy
Left sided sudden hemiparesis
Leukemic meningeosis
Lichen sclerosus
Livedo racemosa
Lofgren’s syndrome
Lumboabdominal pain
Lymphadenosis benigna cutis
Lymphocytoma cutis
Lymphocytic meningitis
Lumboradicular syndrome


Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome
Memory impairment
Meningeal lymphoma
Mesangioproliferative IgA-nephritis
Monolateral chorioretinitis
Morgagni-Adams-Stokes syndrome (MAS)
Morning glory syndrome
Motor neuron syndrome
Motoric disturbations
Multiple mononeuropathy
Multiple mononeuropathy and inflammatory syndrome
Multiple Sclerosis
Musical hallucinations
Myofascial pain syndrome


Necrotizing granulomatous hepatitis
Neonatal respiratory distress
Nodular panniculitis
Normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH)
Oculomotor paralysis

Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome
Nodular fasciitis
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma


Obsessive-compulsive disorder
Ocular flutter
Optic atrophy
Optic disk edema
Orbital myositis
Organic mood syndrome
Optic nerve lesion
Otoneurological Disorders


Paralysis of abdominal muscles
Paralytic strabismus
Paraneoplastic polyneuropathy
Pars plana vitrectopy
Parry-Romberg syndrome
Parsonage and Turner syndrome
Patellar tendon rupture
Peripheral facial palsy
Peripheral neuropathy
Peripheral vascular disorder

Persistent atrioventricular block
Pigment epitheliitis
Pityriasis rosea
Pleural effusion
Polymyalgia rheumatica
Polyneuritis cranialis
Polysymptomatic autoimmune disorder
Popliteal cyst
Posterior scleritis
Postganglionic Horner syndrome
Primary lymphoma of the nervous system
Primary effusion lymphoma
Presenile dementia
Progressive cerebral infarction
Progressive facial hemiatrophy (Parry-Romberg syndrome)
Progressive stroke
Progressive supranuclear paralysis
Prolonged pyrexia
Propriospinal myoclonus
Pseudo-sepsis of the hip
Pseudo tumor Cerebrae
Pseudoneoplastic weight loss
Psychosomatic disorders


Ramsay Hunt syndrome (pleocytosis)
Raynaud’s syndrome
Recurrent paralysis

Reflex sympathetic dystrophy
Reiter’s Syndrome
Respiratory failure
Restless legs syndrome
Retinal pigment epithelium detachment
Retinal vasculitis
Reversible dementia
Rheumatic Fever
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Ruptured Baker cysts
Ruptured synovial cysts


Sacro-iliitis infection
SAPHO syndrome
Schoenlein-Henoch purpura
Secondary syphilis
Seizure Disorders
Sensorineural Hearing Loss
Septal panniculitis
Septic arthritis
Seventh nerve paralysis
Sick sinus syndrome
Silent thalamic lesion
Somatic delusions
Spontaneous brain hemorrhage
Stevens-Johnson syndrome
Stiff-man syndrome
Still’s disease
Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis
Subacute multiple-site osteomyelitis
Subacute organic psychosyndrome
Subacute multiple-site osteomyelitis
Subacute presenile dementia
Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Sudden deafness
Sudden hemiparesis

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
Sudeck’s atrophy

Symmetric Polyarthritis


Temporal arteritis
Temporomandibular joint syndrome
Thrombocytopenic purpura

Tourette’s syndrome

Transient Ischemic Attack
Transient left ventricular dysfunction
Transient synovitis
Trigeminal Neuralgia
Trigeminal palsy


Unilateral interstitial keratitis
Unilateral papillitis


Vasculitic neuropathy
Vasculitic mononeuritis multiplex
Ventricular asystole
Vestibular neuronitis
Vitreous clouding
Vomiting (persistent)

Destroying the Lyme Disease Biofilm Using An Ancient Infiltrator

For people with relapsing Lyme disease symptoms

By Greg Lee

How are resealable bags similar to a chronic Lyme Disease infection?
When gathered in a colony, Lyme bacteria are able to create a protective covering to prevent from being killed off. This protective covering is called a biofilm. This biofilm enables the bacteria to seal themselves within a “plastic bag” when they are in danger. This biofilm protects the bacteria from antibodies, antibiotics, and other medicines that will kill it. In theory, the bacteria are believed to be able to lie dormant in their biofilm for months or even years.

When conditions are safe again, the bacteria can re-emerge and aggravate symptoms of pain, fatigue, and mental fog
As a result, some people end up struggling with a recurring Lyme Disease symptoms for years, even decades. Many of these people seek the care of a Lyme literate physician. These people may end up receiving many different antibiotics over the course of several years.
Antibiotics are believed to stimulate the Lyme bacteria to cover itself with a biofilm. When the bacteria re-emerges, symptoms can flare up bad enough to require hospitalization.

How can you stop this cycle of bacteria sealing itself and re-emerging later to aggravate your symptoms?

An age old herb shows new promise for cutting through a difficult biofilm
In 2006, a 17 year old student in Mississippi used an ancient Ayurverdic herb called terminalia chebula to penetrate the biofilm and kill the pseudonomas bacteria behind cystic fibrosis. Here is the link to the original article:
Her work was also featured in the January/February medicine and health sciences issue of Imagine Magazine published by John Hopkins University.

If this herb can cut through the pseudonomas biofilm, can it also penetrate the Lyme bacteria biofilm?

Current patients report a reduction in their symptoms when taking this herb
When clients take this herb combined with other anti-Lyme herbs and treatment methods, their symptoms are reduced as much as 90% in as little as eight weeks. These results are usually seen in clients that have been infected for about a year or less. In some cases, patients may see an increase in their symptoms due to greater numbers of bacteria being uncovered or killed off in their body.

Initially, symptoms may increase when taking these herbs
Some patients have reported an increase in symptoms of fatigue, dizziness, and joint pain when starting to take the terminalia chebula herb in their formula. In the beginning, the herb is added at a very low dose so as to minimize any flare up of your symptoms due to greater numbers of bacteria being released.

As you get stronger, your symptoms get reduced and the dosage of this herb is increased to cut through any remaining biofilm. This helps your immune system to be more effective at: killing off more bacteria, eliminating harmful toxins, and keeping you healthy and strong.

A ancient herb brings new hope for eliminating the symptoms of chronic Lyme Disease
Instead of dreading a recurrence of your Lyme Disease symptoms, an ancient herb called terminalia chebula may be able to penetrate the thick resealable plastic bag around the Lyme bacteria. And then antibiotics, anti-Lyme herbs, and your immune system can do their job.

Get rid of your Lyme Disease pain, fatigue, and mental fog for good.

P.S. If you like this article, feel free to share it with your own list, post it on your site, post it on your blog, or add it to your autoresponder. As long as you leave it intact and do not alter it in anyway. All links must remain in the article.
And include this at the end of the article.
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Wouldn’t you love to stumble upon a secret library of powerful healing tools and ideas? Find simple, yet electrifying ideas on self-healing, powerful herbs, spiritual healing, and acupuncture for resolving incredibly persistent Lyme disease. Head down to today and judge for yourself.

Suggestions for combatting Lyme induced depression

Guidance from people who have tried to avoid pharmaceutical drugs

If you visit doctor and the will prescribe  Citalopram or similar.  There must be an alternative to getting hooked on prescription drugs that are thought by some to damage the immune system

Suggested Methods to help with depression

  • St Johns wort.
  • Valerian herb tincture (excellent its where valium derived from)
  • B3
  • Cashews
  • 5-HTP

LDA 2008 Bransfield did two excellent presentations in Leicester where he talks about that.

Intestinal worms

The Common Enemy

Intestinal worms, or soil-transmitted helminths (STH), are the most common NTDs worldwide. STHs are caused by a group of parasitic worms, most commonly hookworm, roundworm (ascariasis) and whipworm (trichuriasis) that are either transmitted through contaminated soil or by ingesting parasite eggs.

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that over 1.5 billion people are infected with one or more STHs. Globally, there are 700 million people infected with hookworm (including 44 million pregnant women), 807 million people infected with ascariasis, and 604 million people infected with trichuriasis. Transmission mainly occurs in tropical climates and where sanitation and hygiene are poor.

Did you know?

Hookworm was once a significant public health problem in the South of the United States and the parasite was so widespread that the economy of the South was affected.  In 1909 John D. Rockefeller provided $1M for the creation of the Rockefeller Sanitation Commission for the Eradication of Hookworm Disease.

Through widespread testing and door-to-door treatment and education, the Commission was able to reduce the disease burden so that hookworm was no longer considered a public health issue by 1914

Transmission cycle and symptoms:

There is no direct person-to-person transmission as STH eggs need to mature in soil, and STH are therefore transmitted by parasite eggs that are passed in the feces of infected individuals.

Once inside the body, adult worms live in the intestines and produce thousands of eggs a day. Though symptoms vary, they include: anemia, malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, swelling of the abdomen, weight loss, diarrhea, and inflammation of the intestines.

While hookworm infection is primarily caused by walking barefoot on contaminated soil, both roundworm and whipworm infections are caused by ingesting infective parasitic eggs. Once inside the body, adult worms live in the intestines and produce thousands of eggs a day. Though symptoms vary, they include: anemia, malnutrition, vitamin A deficiency, swelling of the abdomen, weight loss, diarrhea, and inflammation of the intestines. Studies have shown that children infected with hookworm have a 23% drop in school attendance.

Diagnosis and treatment:

Though the standard method of diagnosing STH infection is by identifying the parasite eggs in feces under a microscope, the WHO recommends periodic deworming of all at-risk individuals without previous individual diagnosis in endemic areas. Treatment is either once or twice a year depending on the prevalence of infection.

The aim of the WHO’s STH control strategy is to reduce morbidity caused by the disease and by periodically treating all at-risk populations until the intensity of the infection is reduced. At-risk populations include pre-school children; school-age children; women of childbearing age including pregnant women in their second and third trimesters, and breastfeeding women; and adults in certain high-risk occupations.

There are two fast-acting, safe, effective, and inexpensive drugs available to treat STH: albendazole and mebendazole. Both drugs are easy to administer by non-medical personnel and are donated through the WHO (GlaxoSmithKline provides albendazole and Johnson & Johnson donates mebendazole) to Ministries of Health for STH control programs.

To break the cycle of transmission, it is essential that STH treatment efforts be accompanied by health and hygiene education that encourage healthy behaviors and by the provision of adequate sanitation in resource-poor settings.

Changes required by the Patient Community & Interest Groups

Changes required by the Patient Community   

This draft has not been verified. Awaiting further content and input from existing material.

Priority 1

  • PHE to agree to collaborate with scientists to develop a gold standard method of detecting Borreliosis in the UK. [Note: This is the objective from the 19th Jan Parliamentary Meeting]

Priority 2

  • PHE using  LTT Elispot, Melissa, PCR, Microscopy and scrap 2 Tier test
  • Chief Medical Office to update public on true risks
  • Differential Diagnosis (MSIDS) to be adopted by all GP’s made available on NHS website
  • Treatment based upon symptoms not unreliable tests
  • Doctors must be encouraged to use antibiotics based on clinical symptoms
  • NICE guidelines to be updated by new Lyme Treatment Centres
  • Private Tests to be accepted for NHS Treatment
  • IV Antibiotics to be given to Patients
  • Natural Remedies to be offered
  • Announce to press that Lyme Disease may be an STD
  • National Press & TV Advertising warning of Lyme Disease risks are increasing
  • New Treatment Protocol for UK – Patient Centred – Based on ILADS – Owned by new Centres not NICE
  • Doctors removed from Rigid guidelines preventing novel techniques
  • Treatment of Lyme by Antibiotics to be removed from Annual Appraisal monitoring
  • Better Surveillance & Statistics
  • 3-4 National Treatment centres set-up
  • Specialists brought in from Abroad
  • Lyme Literate Doctor Training Scheme
  • New Professional Body set-up for Lyme Literate Doctors
  • PHE role changed to Testing for Lyme and introducing new tests – Not medical advice to doctors
  • PHE Test results independently Audited and published every 6 months
  • GMC prevented from harassing doctors
  • Research Funding for Testing, Treatments & Prevention (relative to other major disease prevalence)
  • Funding for UK company IanXen to develop microscopy tests for Borrelia and common co-infections
  • True survey of Lyme Patients to determine how many are suffering
  • Announcement that Lyme tests were inaccurate and retesting required (I.E Recall Notice)
  • Training for current GPs about Lyme (and other TBDs) diagnosis and treatment.
  • Prevention and awareness training for the general public, by government agencies.
  • All public Places warning Signs at entrances
  • Schools given warnings and teacher training

Priority 3 – If 1 & 2 not achieved

  • Public Inquiry
  • New Labs Independent Labs to set-up in UK under independent watchdog (Private/Public)
  • New independent Lyme & Co-infections Lab set-up (Private & Gov funded)
  • Suspicious deaths should be tested for Lyme bacteria and other tick born infections

Version Control

  • 30th Jan 2015 – First Draft 0.2 – Added objective from 19th Jan Meeting and prioritised remaining
  • 30th Jan 2015 – First Draft 0.1 prepared with input from 3 people who are approaching their MP’s

Millions were in germ war tests

The Ministry of Defence turned large parts of the country into a giant laboratory to conduct a series of secret germ warfare tests on the public.
A government report just released provides for the first time a comprehensive official history of Britain’s biological weapons trials between 1940 and 1979.

Many of these tests involved releasing potentially dangerous chemicals and micro-organisms over vast swaths of the population without the public being told.

While details of some secret trials have emerged in recent years, the 60-page report reveals new information about more than 100 covert experiments.

The report reveals that military personnel were briefed to tell any ‘inquisitive inquirer’ the trials were part of research projects into weather and air pollution.

The tests, carried out by government scientists at Porton Down, were designed to help the MoD assess Britain’s vulnerability if the Russians were to have released clouds of deadly germs over the country.

In most cases, the trials did not use biological weapons but alternatives which scientists believed would mimic germ warfare and which the MoD claimed were harmless. But families in certain areas of the country who have children with birth defects are demanding a public inquiry.

One chapter of the report, ‘The Fluorescent Particle Trials’, reveals how between 1955 and 1963 planes flew from north-east England to the tip of Cornwall along the south and west coasts, dropping huge amounts of zinc cadmium sulphide on the population. The chemical drifted miles inland, its fluorescence allowing the spread to be monitored. In another trial using zinc cadmium sulphide, a generator was towed along a road near Frome in Somerset where it spewed the chemical for an hour.

While the Government has insisted the chemical is safe, cadmium is recognised as a cause of lung cancer and during the Second World War was considered by the Allies as a chemical weapon.


In another chapter, ‘Large Area Coverage Trials’, the MoD describes how between 1961 and 1968 more than a million people along the south coast of England, from Torquay to the New Forest, were exposed to bacteria including e.coli and bacillus globigii , which mimics anthrax. These releases came from a military ship, the Icewhale, anchored off the Dorset coast, which sprayed the micro-organisms in a five to 10-mile radius.

The report also reveals details of the DICE trials in south Dorset between 1971 and 1975. These involved US and UK military scientists spraying into the air massive quantities of serratia marcescens bacteria, with an anthrax simulant and phenol.

Similar bacteria were released in ‘The Sabotage Trials’ between 1952 and 1964. These were tests to determine the vulnerability of large government buildings and public transport to attack. In 1956 bacteria were released on the London Underground at lunchtime along the Northern Line between Colliers Wood and Tooting Broadway. The results show that the organism dispersed about 10 miles. Similar tests were conducted in tunnels running under government buildings in Whitehall.

Experiments conducted between 1964 and 1973 involved attaching germs to the threads of spiders’ webs in boxes to test how the germs would survive in different environments. These tests were carried out in a dozen locations across the country, including London’s West End, Southampton and Swindon. The report also gives details of more than a dozen smaller field trials between 1968 and 1977.

In recent years, the MoD has commissioned two scientists to review the safety of these tests. Both reported that there was no risk to public health, although one suggested the elderly or people suffering from breathing illnesses may have been seriously harmed if they inhaled sufficient quantities of micro-organisms.

However, some families in areas which bore the brunt of the secret tests are convinced the experiments have led to their children suffering birth defects, physical handicaps and learning difficulties.

David Orman, an army officer from Bournemouth, is demanding a public inquiry. His wife, Janette, was born in East Lulworth in Dorset, close to where many of the trials took place. She had a miscarriage, then gave birth to a son with cerebral palsy. Janette’s three sisters, also born in the village while the tests were being carried out, have also given birth to children with unexplained problems, as have a number of their neighbours.

The local health authority has denied there is a cluster, but Orman believes otherwise. He said: ‘I am convinced something terrible has happened. The village was a close-knit community and to have so many birth defects over such a short space of time has to be more than coincidence.’

Successive governments have tried to keep details of the germ warfare tests secret. While reports of a number of the trials have emerged over the years through the Public Records Office, this latest MoD document – which was released to Liberal Democrat MP Norman Baker – gives the fullest official version of the biological warfare trials yet.

Baker said: ‘I welcome the fact that the Government has finally released this information, but question why it has taken so long. It is unacceptable that the public were treated as guinea pigs without their knowledge, and I want to be sure that the Ministry of Defence’s claims that these chemicals and bacteria used were safe is true.’

The MoD report traces the history of the UK’s research into germ warfare since the Second World War when Porton Down produced five million cattle cakes filled with deadly anthrax spores which would have been dropped in Germany to kill their livestock. It also gives details of the infamous anthrax experiments on Gruinard on the Scottish coast which left the island so contaminated it could not be inhabited until the late 1980s.

The report also confirms the use of anthrax and other deadly germs on tests aboard ships in the Caribbean and off the Scottish coast during the 1950s. The document states: ‘Tacit approval for simulant trials where the public might be exposed was strongly influenced by defence security considerations aimed obviously at restricting public knowledge. An important corollary to this was the need to avoid public alarm and disquiet about the vulnerability of the civil population to BW [biological warfare] attack.’

Sue Ellison, spokeswoman for Porton Down, said: ‘Independent reports by eminent scientists have shown there was no danger to public health from these releases which were carried out to protect the public.

‘The results from these trials_ will save lives, should the country or our forces face an attack by chemical and biological weapons.’

Asked whether such tests are still being carried out, she said: ‘It is not our policy to discuss ongoing research.’

NHS refuse to treat Student from New Forest with confirmed Lyme Disease


A 19 year old student from Hampshire who has suffered from a crippling and painful illness for more than 5 years has finally discovered the source of her illness, which went undiagnosed by numerous NHS doctors, despite what are now very obvious symptoms.

Annabel Christian, 20, had to give up her education at the London School of Fashion, turn down a modelling contract and quit two retail fashion jobs due to crippling fatigue and pain.

She has now been told she is suffering from Late Stage Lyme disease, a bacterial infection which she picked up from a tick bite while at a boarding school in the New Forest, Hampshire in 2009. The numerous deer that surrounded her school carry the ticks that bit her.

While at school, following a sports lesson outside, she began feeling unwell and soon noticed a red round rash on her arm that resembled a Bull’s eye target similar to ring worm. Her GP admitted he had no idea what caused her arm to swell up to twice the normal size.


She then began suffering from over 56 symptoms, and after 1 year was diagnosed with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), a diagnosis often used when doctors are unable to find the true cause of an illness.

Her NHS GP lacked the training required to diagnose Lyme Disease. He relied upon tests used by the NHS lab at Porton Down, Wiltshire, which he was not aware was less that 50% accurate. The GP’s lack of training  prevented her from getting an early diagnosis which is crucial in this condition because patients only have a chance of full recovery if treated within the first six months. Even with early treatment, it is estimated that 20% of patients do not make a full recovery and progress to the chronic form known as Late Stage Lyme Disease.

The Deer Ticks that spread Lyme Disease.


tick foot

Annabel, from Fordingbridge, Hampshire, said: “I have been chronically ill for over 5 years. I had to give up college, a modelling career and can no longer work in fashion as I’m too weak and sick, I sleep all day and night and can hardly walk up and down the stairs at home.

“I’m one of the lucky ones as my father refused to believe the NHS diagnosis of CFS/ME. On the advice of a friend in Malta, he arranged to have my blood samples sent to a specialist Lab in Germany for testing. After my blood test results came back positive, we visited a Professor in Brussels who confirmed that I have Lyme Disease.

“I had over 20 phials of blood taken and an extensive array of tests in Germany and Brussels to diagnose this illness, which the NHS doctors advised by PHE lab at Porton Down say we do not have as their less accurate says otherwise.

“I have fevers all the time, constant pain, neurological problems, cognitive issues, co-ordination problems, spasms, tremors, Facial Palsy (which causes my face to freeze) and many other nasty debilitating symptoms, too many to list.

“I have to wear a mouth brace as the bacteria has damaged by Jaw causing a painful misalignment condition known as TMJ, which makes it very difficult to eat.

“In December 2013 I lost consciousness at a friend’s party in Ringwood and ended up in casualty on New Year’s Eve. Luckily my friend’s mother is a GP and she ended up spending the night in hospital looking after me, ordering one test after another, trying to establish why I was so ill (Once again, but no surprise, none of their tests showed what was wrong with me).

My friends have been very supportive considering I never have the energy to go out. I am determined to get rid of this disease and the battle to regain my health starts now – I won’t give up hope.”


New Forest – A High risk location for Lyme Disease



In January 2014, Annabel read Dr Richard Horowitz’s book, “Why Can’t I Get Better?” which contained a questionnaire score sheet to help diagnose tick born infections. She was surprised to learn that she scored 120 points when any score above 46 indicates a high risk of Lyme Disease. This provided a strong “Differential Diagnosis” and confirmation that the Bull’s eye rash that came up immediately should have be taken as clinical proof of Lyme disease removing the the need for a test.

Armed with the proof she needed, Annabel  had a consultation with an Emeritus Professor based in Brussels who confirmed by looking at her symptoms and the results of a sensitive €170 Euro test (not available in the UK) that she had Late State Lyme disease and Auto-immune Thyroiditis.

Treatment Abroad – Why do the NHS refuse to Treat Patients

Annabel’s latest NHS GP, Dr Toby Wallis from Fordingbridge in Hampshire, refused to treat her or refer her despite the diagnosis of an Emeritus Professor, two positive blood tests from Germany and a clinical history (rash) that confirms the disease. In early 2014 he tried to obtain a referral to a Specialist NHS Lyme Clinic in Winchester, but this was shut down due to lack of funding, so she never received an appointment let alone treatment. Her GP infomed her that he was unable to treat Lyme Disease and that a referral to a specialist would be required. She has been waiting for almost a year to see a specialist on the NHS. After complaining to his MP Patrick Swayne, who wrote to the Secretary of State for health on his behalf, Annabel finally thought she would receive an appointment with the Southampton Hospital infectious disease team. After a week, her GP came back saying that they had refused to treat her as they aware her father had complained about the NHS to their MP, whose wife Moira is being treated privately for Lyme Disease (They too live in the New Forest so are exposed to Lyme constantly).

Foreign Treatment – The Only Option ?

Annabel’s father realised that it was impossible to get treatment on the NHS and decided to take her and her brother (Who also has Lyme disease) to Brussels to start a 12 week treatment with   Intravenous  Antibiotics.

Hundreds of patients are forced to spend their life-time savings on foreign tests and treatments as the NHS is unwilling to diagnose or treat the disease. Many more, who cannot afford the expensive private tests and treatment are suffering and many will eventually die from complications caused by the illness, although it’s unlikely to be written on their death certificate (as tests will invariably be negative).

Neither Insurance companies or the NHS want to pay for the expensive treatments required to treat the disease. Even people a positive NHS test result are not being treated appropriately.

The NHS are refusing to treat them based upon a negative NHS which is known to use an outdated low accuracy method. As this treatment needs prior approval in the UK, the NHS will not agree to pay for foreign treatment.

Website on Lyme

Annabel’s father, Mark, 51, who has been researching Lyme Disease for over a year to help his daughter fight the disease says “In the US its well-known that 30-50% of (serology based) Lyme disease tests are “False Negatives”.

“In the majority of cases, anyone who has been ill for over a year will have no immune response to the Lyme disease bacteria in their body, so the insensitive indirect serology test used by the NHS will just come back negative. This test only looks for an immune response and does not directly detect the Lyme disease bacteria known as Borrelia. There are more accurate tests available,but it’s almost impossible to obtain them in the UK on the NHS. The manufacturer of the NHS test kit says negative tests are known to be unreliable and should never be used to rule out Lyme Disease. This information is not communicated to UK patients who are (as we were) blissfully ignorant of this fact. In the US there is a law that forces doctors to disclose this fact. The same should be introduced in the UK.

“We learned from the experts that the diagnosis should always be based upon symptoms and clinical history.

High Cost of treating the disease

“The leading Lyme Disease Doctors recommend treating Late Stage Lyme Disease with long-term IV antibiotics which is almost impossible to get in the UK. The NHS prevents thousands of patients receiving treatment by relying upon inaccurate testing methods to justify their reluctance to treat  patients for Late Stage (Chronic) Lyme Disease. They  go out of their way to prevent doctors issuing the antibiotics required by Patients to get better. Doctors soon find out that they will lose their medical license if they follow the guidance provided on the NHS website. There are only two private clinics in the UK who can treat for Lyme disease and both of these are constantly harassed by the GMC.

“We have spent more than £100,000 on tests and treatments, at least £20,000 of this could have been avoided had the NHS been able to diagnose the illness. Annable and her brother now have Eight positive test results for Lyme from Four separate Labs, in Germany, Brussels and one reference Lab in the US.

Porton Down PHE – They need to be replaced and FAST

“Our GP was informed by a “specialist” at Porton Down to ignore all private tests without providing a valid justification. This unscientific interference  prevented her GP from being able to treat her.

“Words fail me how these secretive shadowy unnamed individuals are prepared to sentence people to a slow death without even meeting them. We need to replace Porton Down as the definitive source of knowledge on this disease in the UK.

“After a few years, it’s known that the immune system attacks the Thyroid gland, confusing it with Lyme Disease bacteria. Due to the lack of treatment for Lyme Disease Annabel now has an auto-immune disease.

Has a growing Epidemic been deliberately  “covered up” ?

Annabels father stated “Yes I have no doubt in my mind although it not clear why this is – Its either financial, government incompetence or a military secret that’s not in the national interest to admit as the truth could cause panic, riots and government instability. The NHS has a growing public health crisis on their hands which is far more serious than Ebola.

Recall of Tests – Inform the Public

In the same way as car manufacturers are forced to recall unsafe vehicles, the NHS has a duty of care to inform everyone who has had a Lyme disease test in the last 20 years that the results are not accurate. If I was suffering from an unexplained chronic illness, I would arrange for a test in Germany until such time as the NHS has obtained a more accurate testing facility. In the mean time, the NHS  should accept the results from US & European testing labs.

Possibility of Bribery and Corruption at Porton Down ?

Annabel’s father discovered after talking to a Senior Official at Porton Down (acting as a Medical Product supplier) that the PHE have an Intellectual Property sharing commercial agreement with their current Test Kit supplier and were unable to use other tests kits (that might be more reliable) as a result of this agreement. This is a clear conflict of interest that must break every commercial procurement rule book, so needs to be looked into further as it may indicate bribery of Government officials my a foreign medical products company.


“The NHS lab at Porton Down has more advanced direct testing techniques available (PCR & Culture) however they are not sensitive so can easily give false negatives. Most GP’s are not aware of the shortcomings of the existing 2-Tier test and why they should insist on the more accurate testing, which is not available in the UK. The Porton Down Lab has never (to my knowledge) published an independent audit of their test results. They are cloaked in secrecy and refuse to talk to patients, probably a hang-over from their former existence as the UK Biological Weapons research establishment, a top secret UK Government organisation that developed biological weapons during the cold war and tested live bacteria on military personnel and the general population.

“I hope that this incompetent organisation that has failed to safeguard the nations health will soon be replaced with an independent modern facility that patients and doctors can rely upon. Porton Down has been thoroughly discredited by their refusal to acquire modern testing methods and a lack of independent audits. They should be at the forefront of developments, yet a 16 year old with a 200x £150 microscope can easily detect Lyme Disease.


“At least the US CDC (who monitor outbreaks of disease in America) admitted last year that they had underestimated the true scale of Lyme Disease in the US. In 2014, they upped the number of reported cases from 30,000 to 300,000 a year. Many scientists have stated even this figure vastly understates the true incidence of this disease. In recent tests on Alzheimer’s patients, over 90% were found to have Lyme disease bacteria Borrelia in brain lesions. In Germany, a recent study found over 20% of 70-80 year old’s tested positive for Lyme disease, although not all had symptoms. Even the Chinese government have admitted that 3% of their population are infected with Lyme disease. It’s about time the NHS woke up to this alarming and growing epidemic and started treating this disease, which has over 10 times more patients yet attracts less than 1% of the funding of HIV/AIDS. Scientists have shown that Lyme Disease is an STD and that the blood bank in the UK is not routinely screening for Lyme Disease bacteria, so there are many more ways of contracting this disease than from Tick Bites.

“I have no doubt that in the fullness of time, the Porton Down Lab and their shadowy Military commanders will be blamed for the needless deaths of hundreds if not thousands of UK patients in the the last 10-20 years.

Patient Led Parliamentary Meeting – 19th Jan 2015

Parliament pic4

The lack of accurate testing, diagnosis and treatment in the UK is why over 120 patients and their families petitioned their MP’s and presented their case for a change in the Houses of Parliament  on the 19th January 2015. The meeting , which was chaired by Lady Mar (The speaker of the house of Lords),  high-lighted the difficulty many thousands of patients have in obtaining accurate testing and treatment in the UK.

The former MP Simon Hughes (Lib Dem) and Countess of Mar have been championing the cause of thousands of people suffering from Lyme Disease. Despite receiving a Petition with over 1000 names, neither the Health Minister Jeremy Hunt or his deputy were able to attend. The patients called for increased public awareness of this growing health crisis which has been known about for years in Sweden, Germany and many other countries. After the meeting, the NHS PHE issued a press release to the BBC stating they would review the testing methods used within the NHS.

Further Information for Editors.

  • NHS / PHE claim that only 1.7 people per 100,000 have the disease in the UK. In Germany and other European countries the estimates are far higher, casting doubt over the accuracy of the UK figures. [Details to follow]
  • A US firm was recently awarded a $3m USD contract to develop a rapid and accurate Lyme disease test.
  • A UK based “crowd funded” start-up company announced they are developing a microscope that allows an IPhone to detect Lyme disease, with a microscope attachment. This is raising hopes that the NHS may soon have more accurate rapid testing tool at their disposal.

Mouth Swab of Alzheimers disease patient showing numerous spirochetes and a typical flagellated borrelia bacteria


Spirochetes from mouth swab

2014 12 22 Mouth Swab spirochetes HD 100 fps, 2500x HiSHRUB-Ultra HD Microscopy

<a href="/channel/UCPgb7Zkul4s6q3Qfw_GDKbg" class=" yt-uix-sessionlink     spf-link  g-hovercard" data-ytid="UCPgb7Zkul4s6q3Qfw_GDKbg" data-sessionlink="ei=3lO0VPnNBJG10QXWpIC4Dg" data-name="">Armin Koroknay</a>

Armin Koroknay

Published on 24 Dec 2014

Mouth swab of a patient with progressive M. Alzheimers disease showing numerous spirochetes and atypical flagellated borrelia bacteria. For the first time we could visualize very small spirochetes shorter than 3 micrometers an thinner than 1 micrometer, which move so rapidly, that normal video resolution an 25 frames per second cannot resolve their shape. If the observer sets the frmarate to slow motion in the bottom right menue of you tube video, all quickly moving flagellated abcteria can be seen much more clearly due to 100 fps high speed video recording. Uploading to you tube has reduced framerat to 60 fps, which is still enough to see very sharp images at 0.25x speed setting, representing 15 fps. thanks to the high frame rate rather sharp still images can be taken from the video, showing clearly the shape of 10 nm thick bacterial flagellae moving very rapidly.
One yellowish spirochete can be observed eating annother bacterial species. The video was taken with a very bright plasma LED illumination and a high sensitivity full frame CMOS chip high speed camera. To our knowledge these video represents the highest quality video of alzheimer causing spirochetes living in their natural environment, and behaving like in humans.
Magnification at 2500x, All rights reserved to A. Koroknay, Zürich, Switzerland.

Over 100 Articles on seronegativity and persistent infection of Borrelia



Diagnosis: Laboratory Testing

False Seronegativity Extensively Documented

41 Patients with late Lyme disease confirmed by Positive Culture or Positive PCR

54% had been sick for more than 1 year

63.5% had a negative or borderline ELISA.

We conclude that antibodies to B. burgdorferi often are present in only low levels or are even absent in culture- or PCR-positive patients who have been suffering for years from symptoms compatible with LB.

– Oksi J, Uksila J, Marjamäki M, Nikoskelainen J, Viljanen MK. Antibodies against whole sonicated Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes, 41-kilodalton flagellin, and P39 protein in patients with PCR- or culture-proven late Lyme borreliosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1995 Sep;33(9):2260-4

Only 50% of patients with late Lyme frankly seropositive.

Late-phase ocular Lyme borreliosis is probably underdiagnosed because of weak seropositivity or seronegativity in ELISA assays.

-Karma A, Seppälä I, Mikkilä H, Kaakkola S, Viljanen M, Tarkkanen A.

Diagnosis and clinical characteristics of ocular Lyme borreliosis. Am J Ophthalmol.

1995 Feb;119(2):127-35.

240 hospitalized patients with diagnoses c/w late Lyme

32/240 (13.3 %) PCR positive

18/32 (56.3%) were seronegative.

-Chmielewski T, Fiett J, Gniadkowski M, Tylewska-Wierzbanowska S.

Improvement in the laboratory recognition of Lyme borreliosis with the combination of culture and PCR methods. Mol Diagn. 2003;7(3-4):155-62.

…a patient with active Lyme disease may have a negative test result…

-Brown SL, Hansen SL, Langone JJ. (FDA Medical Bulletin) Role of serology in the diagnosis of Lyme disease. JAMA. 1999 Jul 7;282(1):62-6.

Specific borrelia IgM and IgG value in serum and CSF were normal

The bacteria were cultured both from blood and from CSF, in CSF they were also identified by PCR.

3 fatalities due to Lyme

-Bertrand E, Szpak GM, Piłkowska E, Habib N, LipczyńskaLojkowska W, Rudnicka A, Tylewska-Wierzbanowska S, Kulczycki J.. Central nervous system infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. Clinico-pathological correlation of three post-mortem cases. Folia Neuropathol. 1999;37(1):43-51

-Breier F, Khanakah G, Stanek G, Kunz G, Aberer E, Schmidt B, Tappeiner G. Isolation and polymerase chain reaction typing of Borrelia afzelii from a skin lesion in a seronegative patient with

generalized ulcerating bullous lichen sclerosus et atrophicus. Br J Dermatol. 2001 Feb;144(2):387-92.

-Brunner M, Sigal LH. Immune complexes from serum of patients with lyme disease contain Borrelia burgdorferi antigen and antigenspecific antibodies: potential use for improved testing.

J Infect Dis. 2000 Aug;182(2):534-9. Epub 2000 Jul 28.

– Brunner M. New method for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi antigen complexed to antibody in seronegative Lyme disease. J Immunol Methods. 2001 Mar 1;249(1-2):185-90.

– Wang P, Hilton E. Contribution of HLA alleles in the regulation of antibody production in Lyme disease. Front Biosci. 2001 Sep 1;6:B10-6.

– Dinerman H, Steere AC. Lyme disease associated with fibromyalgia. Ann Intern Med. 1992 Aug 15;117(4):281-5.

– Fraser DD, Kong LI, Miller FW. Molecular detection of persistent Borrelia burgdorferi in a man with dermatomyositis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1992 Jul-Aug;10(4):387-90.

– Dejmkova H, Hulinska D, Tegzova D, Pavelka K, Gatterova J, Vavrik P. Seronegative Lyme arthritis caused by Borrelia garinii. Clin Rheumatol. 2002 Aug;21(4):330-4.

-Oksi J, Mertsola J, Reunanen M, Marjamaki M, Viljanen MK.

Subacute multiple-site osteomyelitis caused by Borrelia burgdorferi.

Clin Infect Dis 1994 Nov; 19(5): 891-6.

-Honegr K, Hulinska D, Dostal V, Gebousky P, Hankova E, Horacek J, Vyslouzil L, Havlasova J. Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in patients with Lyme borreliosis. Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol. 2001 Feb;50(1):10-6.

– Wilke M, Eiffert H, Christen HJ, Hanefeld F. Primarily chronic and cerebrovascular course of Lyme neuroborreliosis: case reports and literature review. Arch Dis Child 2000 Jul;83(1):67-71.

Seronegative Patients Worse Off

– Double-blind, randomized, controlled trial

– Partial response by end of treatment associated with higher rate of relapse

-57% of total relapsing patients seronegative at the time.

– 75% of amoxicillin treated relapsing patients seronegative at the time

…development of an antibody response increased the possibility of achieving a complete response.‖

-Luft BJ, Dattwyler RJ, Johnson RC, Luger SW, Bosler EM, Rahn DW, Masters EJ, Grunwaldt E, Gadgil SD. Azithromycin compared with amoxicillin in the treatment of erythema migrans. A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 1996 May 1;124(9):785-91.

Serologic status & PCR status inversely correlated

– Mouritsen CL, Wittwer CT, Litwin CM, Yang L, Weis JJ, Martins TB, Jaskowski TD, Hill HR. Polymerase chain reaction detection of Lyme disease: correlation with clinical manifestations and serologic responses.Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 1996 May;105(5):647-54.

Seronegative patients in the study had higher rates of positive CSF PCR

57% of seronegative patients had not received prior antibiotics before serologies were performed

106 patient & contamination controls were negative

Keller TL, Halperin JJ, Whitman M. PCR detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in cerebrospinal fluid of Lyme neuroborreliosis patients. Neurology. 1992 Jan;42(1):32-42.

Lyme borreliosis patients who have live spirochetes in body fluids have low or negative levels of borrelial antibodies in their sera

-Tylewska-Wierzbanowska S, Chmielewski T. Limitation of serological testing for Lyme borreliosis: evaluation of ELISA and western blot in comparison with PCR and culture methods. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2002 Jul 31;114(13-14):601-5

    False Seronegativity Extensively Documented

    – Schubert HD, Greenebaum E, Neu HC. Cytologically proven seronegative Lyme choroiditis and vitritis. Retina. 1994;14(1):39-42.

    – Haupl T, Hahn G, Rittig M, Krause A, Schoerner C, Schonherr U, Kalden JR, Burmester GR. Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in ligamentous tissue from a patient with chronic Lyme borreliosis. Arthritis Rheum 1993 Nov; 36(11): 1621-6.

    – Hulinska D, Krausova M, Janovska D, Rohacova H, Hancil J, Mailer H.

    Electron microscopy and the polymerase chain reaction of spirochetes from the blood of patients with Lyme disease. Cent Eur J Public Health 1993 Dec; 1(2): 81-5.

    – Liegner KB, Shapiro JR, Ramsay D, Halperin AJ, Hogrefe W, Kong L.

    Recurrent erythema migrans despite extended antibiotic treatment with minocycline in a patient with persisting Borrelia burgdorferi infection. J.Am. Acad. Dermatol. 1993 Feb;28(2 Pt 2):312-4.

    – Preac Mursic V, Marget W, Busch U, Pleterski Rigler D, Hagl S. Kill kinetics of Borrelia burgdorferi and bacterial findings in relation to the treatment of Lyme borreliosis. Infection. 1996 Jan-Feb;24(1):9-16.

    – Mursic VP, Wanner G, Reinhardt S, Wilske B, Busch U, Marget W. Formation and cultivation of Borrelia burgdorferi spheroplast-Lform variants. Infection 1996 Jul-Aug;24(4):335.

    – Millner M. Neurologic manifestations of Lyme borreliosis in children Wien Med Wochenschr. 1995;145(7-8):178-82.

    – Kmety E. Dynamics of antibodies in Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infections. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2000;101(1):5-7.

    – Pikelj F, Strle F, Mozina M. Seronegative Lyme disease and transitory atrioventricular block. Ann Intern Med 1989 Jul 1;111(1):90.

    – Pachner AR. Borrelia burgdorferi in the nervous system: the new “great imitator”.Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1988;539:56-64.

    …chronic Lyme disease cannot be excluded by the absence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi.‖

    – Dattwyler RJ, Volkman DJ, Luft BJ, Halperin JJ, Thomas J, Golightly MG. Seronegative Lyme disease. Dissociation of specific T- and B-lymphocyte responses to Borrelia burgdorferi. N Engl J

    Med. 1988 Dec 1;319(22):1441-6.

    Greater than 70% of patients with chronic Lyme disease were seronegative by CDC criteria

    – Donta ST. Tetracycline therapy for chronic Lyme disease. Clin Infect Dis 1997 Jul;25 Suppl 1:S52-6.

    – Pleyer U, Priem S, Bergmann L, Burmester G, Hartmann C, Krause A. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in urine of patients with ocular Lyme borreliosis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2001 May;85(5):552-5.

    – Eldøen G, Vik IS, Vik E, Midgard R. [Lyme neuroborreliosis in More and Romsdal] Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2001 Jun 30;121(17):2008-11.

    – Kaiser R. False-negative serology in patients with neuroborreliosis and the value of employing of different borrelial strains in serological assays. J Med Microbiol. 2000 Oct;49(10):911-5.

    – Mikkilä H, Karma A, Viljanen M, Seppälä I. The laboratory diagnosis of ocular Lyme borreliosis. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1999 Mar;237(3):225-30.

    – Aberer E, Kersten A, Klade H, Poitschek C, Jurecka W.

    Heterogeneity of Borrelia burgdorferi in the skin. Am J Dermatopathol. 1996 Dec;18(6):571-9.

    – Steere AC. Seronegative Lyme disease. JAMA. 1993 Sep 15;270(11):1369.

    – Preac-Mursic V, Pfister HW, Spiegel H, Burk R, Wilske B, Reinhardt S, Bohmer R. First isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from an iris biopsy. J. Clin. Neuroophthalmol. 1993 Sep;13(3):155-61.

    – Oksi J, Viljanen MK, Kalimo H, Peltonen R, Marttía R, Salomaa P, Nikoskelainen J, Budka H, Halonen P. Fatal encephalitis caused by concomitant infection with tick-borne encephalitis virus and Borrelia burgdorferi. Clin Infect Dis. 1993 Mar;16(3):392-6.

    – Skripnikova IA, Anan’eva LP, Barskova VG, Ushakova MA. [The humoral immunological response of patients with Lyme disease.]Ter Arkh 1995;67(11):53-6.

    – Klempner MS, Schmid CH, Hu L, Steere AC, Johnson G, McCloud B, Noring R, Weinstein A. Intralaboratory reliability of serologic and urine testing for Lyme disease. Am J Med. 2001 Feb


    -Banyas GT. Difficulties with Lyme serology. J Am Optom Assoc. 1992 Feb;63(2):135-9.

    – Faller J, Thompson F, Hamilton W. Foot and ankle disorders resulting from Lyme disease. Foot Ankle. 1991 Feb;11(4):236-8.

    – Nields JA, Kueton JF. Tullio phenomenon and seronegative Lyme borreliosis. Lancet. 1991 Jul 13;338(8759):128-9.

    – Schutzer SE, Coyle PK, Belman AL, Golightly MG, Drulle J.

    Sequestration of antibody to Borrelia burgdorferi in immune complexes in seronegative Lyme disease. Lancet. 1990 Feb 10;335(8685):312-5.

    – Paul A. [Arthritis, headache, facial paralysis. Despite negative laboratory tests Borrelia can still be the cause]. MMW Fortschr. Med 2001 Feb 8;143(6):17.

    8 out of the previous 46 articles documenting late seronegative Lyme were written by some of the authors of the IDSA and NEJM papers as referenced above in red .

    False Negative CSF (& Seronegative Also)

    Of 35 patients with specific Lyme Antigen (Osp A) in CSF:

    15 (43%) were antibody-negative in CSF.

    Seven of these 15 (47%) had otherwise normal routine CSF analyses.

    Nine of these 15 (60%) patients were seronegative

    …neurologic infection by B. burgdorferi should not be excluded solely on the basis of normal routine CSF or negative CSF antibody analyses.

    – Coyle PK, Schutzer SE, Deng Z, Krupp LB, Belman AL, Benach JL, Luft BJ.

    Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi-specific antigen in antibody-negative cerebrospinal fluid in neurologic Lyme disease. Neurology. 1995 Nov;45(11):2010-5.

    CSF False Negative Antibodies

    …local antibody production in CSF is an inconsistent finding in American patients with late neurologic manifestations of the disorder.

    – Steere AC, Berardi VP, Weeks KE, Logigian EL, Ackermann R. Evaluation of the intrathecal antibody response to Borrelia burgdorferi as a diagnostic test for Lyme neuroborreliosis. J Infect Dis 1990 Jun;161(6):1203-9.

    39%-54% of patients with late neurologic Lyme were antibody negative in CSF

    – Logigian EL, Kaplan RF, Steere AC. Successful treatment of Lyme encephalopathy with intravenous ceftriaxone. J Infect Dis 1999;180:377–83.

    – Logigian EL, Kaplan RF, Steere AC. Chronic neurologic manifestations of Lyme disease. N Engl J Med 1990;323:1438–44.

    – Pfister HW, Preac-Mursic V, Wilske B, Einhaupl KM, Weinberger K. Latent Lyme neuroborreliosis: presence of Borrelia burgdorferi in the cerebrospinal fluid without concurrent inflammatory signs. Neurology. 1989 Aug;39(8):1118-20.

    – Preac-Mursic V, Weber K, Pfister HW, Wilske B, Gross B, Baumann A, Prokop J. Survival of Borrelia burgdorferi in antibiotically treated patients with Lyme borreliosis. Infection. 1989 Nov-Dec;17(6):355-9.

    – Peter O, Bretz AG, Zenhausern R, Roten H, Roulet E. Isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi in the cerebrospinal fluid of 3 children with neurological involvement. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 1993 Jan 13; 123(1-2): 14-9.

    – Oksi J, Kalimo H, Marttila RJ, Marjamaki M, Sonninen P, Nikoskelainen J, Viljanen MK. Inflammatory brain changes in Lyme borreliosis. A report on three patients and review of literature. Brain 1996 Dec; 119 ( Pt 6): 2143-54.

    – Kaiser R, Rasiah C, Gassmann G, Vogt A, Lücking CH. Intrathecal antibody synthesis in Lyme neuroborreliosis: use of recombinant p41 and a 14-kDa flagellin fragment in ELISA. J Med Microbiol. 1993 Oct;39(4):290-7.

    – Honegr K, Hulinska D, Dostal V, Gebousky P, Hankova E, Horacek J, Vyslouzil L, Havlasova J. Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in patients with Lyme borreliosis. Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol 2001 Feb;50(1):10-6.

    CSF PCR—Useful or Not?

    In children with known Lyme meningitis, Lyme CSF-PCR had a sensitivity of 5% and a specificity of 99%

    – Avery RA, Frank G, Eppes SC. Diagnostic utility of Borrelia burgdorferi cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction in children with Lyme meningitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005 Aug;24(8):705-8.

    Nested CSF PCR sensitivity in known Lyme neuroborreliosis was 35%.

    – Picha D, Moravcova L, Zdarsky E, Maresova V, Hulinsky V. PCR in lyme neuroborreliosis: a prospective study. Acta Neurol Scand. 2005 Nov;112(5):287-92.

    CDC Case Definition is Not for Diagnosis

    CDC Surveillance Case Definition

    a) a case with EM or;

    b) a case with at least one objective manifestation such as meningitis, cranial neuropathy, arthritis, or AV block, that is laboratory confirmed.

    This surveillance case definition was developed for national reporting of Lyme disease; it is not intended to be used in clinical diagnosis.

    Cases reported to CDC are estimated to be 10 times less than the actual number of Lyme cases

    Roberts DM, Carlyon JA, Theisen M, Marconi RT. The bdr gene families of the Lyme disease and relapsing fever spirochetes: potential influence on biology, pathogenesis, and evolution. Emerg

    Infect Dis. 2000 Mar-Apr;6(2):110-22.

    Early Lyme:

    Objective Findings Poor-Subjective Findings Rich Trevejo RT, Krause PJ, Sikand VK, Schriefer ME, Ryan R, Lepore T, Porter W, Dennis DT. Evaluation of two-test serodiagnostic method for early Lyme disease in clinical practice. J Infect Dis. 2000 Feb;181(2):802-3.

    Objective Findings Subjective Symptoms

    EM as Entry Criteria

    No A-V Block

    No Meningitis

    No Cranial Neuritis

    No encephalomyelitis

    Joint swelling in 10.8%

    Fatigue 56.8%

    Myalgias 43.2%

    Headache 39.2%

    Chills 35.1%

    Joint pain 35.1%

    (without swelling)

    Only 22% of late Lyme patients had a prior history of EM.

    – Qureshi MZ, New D, Zulqarni NJ, Nachman S. Overdiagnosis and overtreatment of Lyme disease in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002 Jan;21(1):12-4

    Late Lyme:

    Objective Findings Poor-Subjective Findings Rich

    18 patients with documented persistent infection by immuno-electron microscopy and PCR

    50% had only non-specific subjective symptoms, nothing objective.

    39% were seronegative initially

    67% were seronegative on repeat testing.

    50% had completely negative CSF for Lyme antibodies, chemistries, and cell count

    – Honegr K, Hulinska D, Dostal V, Gebousky P, Hankova E, Horacek J, Vyslouzil L, Havlasova J. Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in patients with Lyme borreliosis. Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol 2001 Feb;50(1):10-6.

    Chronic Lyme Disease Non-Specific Symptoms

    120 Lyme patients evaluated vague, non-specific dental, facial or head pain, who present with a multisystemic, multi-treatment history, are suspect.

    – Heir GM, Fein LA. Lyme disease awareness for the New Jersey dentist. A survey of orofacial and headache complaints associated with Lyme disease. J N J Dent Assoc 1998 Winter;69(1):19, 21, 62-3 passim.

    … even non-specific symptoms should alert the physician to the possibility of infection caused by the spirochete.

    …neuroborreliosis may be the cause for persisting, irreversible intellectual impairment…Brain lesions are the result of misdiagnosis and delayed antibiotic treatment.

    – Poplawska R, Konarzewska B, Gudel-Trochimowicz I, Szulc A. Psychologic disorders in

    acute and persistent neuroborreliosis. Pol Merkuriusz Lek 2001 Jan;10(55):36-7.

    27 Chronic Lyme patients evaluated

    56% of the total had Brain lesions on MRI.

    – Morgen K, Martin R, Stone RD, Grafman J, Kadom N, McFarland HF, Marques A.

    FLAIR and magnetization transfer imaging of patients with post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. Neurology. 2001 Dec 11;57(11):1980-5.

    Seronegative, Non-specific, Life-threatening

    …chronic form of neuroborreliosis and displayed only non-specific symptoms.

    One child: Vasculitis by CNS biopsy. PCR positive in CSF. No specific antibodies were detectable.

    Three other children: Culture Positive from CSF in the absence of specific antibodies in CSF or blood.

    Patient #1: Severe weight loss and chronic headaches

    Patient #2: Seizures and failure to thrive.

    Patients #3 & #4: Acute hemiparesis from ischemic CVA‘s-cerebrovascular course of neuroborreliosis.

    Following adequate antibiotic treatment, all patients showed substantial improvement of their respective symptoms.

    – Wilke M, Eiffert H, Christen HJ, Hanefeld F. Primarily chronic and cerebrovascular course of Lyme neuroborreliosis: case reports and literature review. Arch Dis Child 2000 Jul;83(1):67-71.

    Treatment Outcomes:

    High Failure Rates in Late Disease

    Short term antibiotics fail in 25%-71% of patients with late stage disease.

    -Treib J, Fernandez A, Haass A, Grauer MT, Holzer G, Woessner R. Clinical and serologic follow-up in patients with neuroborreliosis. Neurology. 1998 Nov;51(5):1489-91.

    – Steere AC, Berardi VP, Weeks KE, Logigian EL, Ackermann R. Evaluation of the intrathecal antibody response to Borrelia burgdorferi as a diagnostic test for Lyme neuroborreliosis. J Infect Dis 1990 Jun;161(6):1203-9.

    – Dvorakova J, Celer V. [Pharmacological aspects of Lyme borreliosis]Ceska Slov

    Farm. 2004 Jul;53(4):159-64.

    – Kaiser R. Clinical courses of acute and chronic neuroborreliosis following treatment with ceftriaxone.Nervenarzt.2004 Jun;75(6):553-7.

    – Berglund J, Stjernberg L, Ornstein K, Tykesson-Joelsson K, Walter H. 5-y Follow-up study of patients with neuroborreliosis. Scand J Infect Dis.2002;34(6):421-5.

    – Valesová H, Mailer J, Havlík J, Hulínská D, Hercogová J. Long-term results in patients with Lyme arthritis following treatment with ceftriaxone. Infection. 1996 Jan-Feb;24(1):98-102.

    – Rohácová H, Hancil J, Hulinská D, Mailer H, Havlík J. Ceftriaxone in the treatment of Lyme neuroborreliosis. Infection. 1996 Jan-Feb;24(1):88-90.

    Severe Chronic Symptoms

    mild and self-limiting subjective symptoms common, and some occur in more than 10% of the general population

    – Feder HM Jr, Johnson BJ, O’Connell S, Shapiro ED, Steere AC, Wormser GP; Ad Hoc

    International Lyme Disease Group (Bockenstedt LK, Dattwyler RJ, Nadelman RB,

    Halperin JJ, Klempner MS, Krause PJ, Dumler JS, Bakken JS, et al). A critical appraisal

    of “chronic Lyme disease”.N Engl J Med. 2007 Oct 4;357(14):1422-30.

    Base-line assessments documented severe impairment in the patients’ health-related quality of life

    – Klempner MS, Hu LT, Evans J, Schmid CH, Johnson GM, Trevino RP, Norton D,

    Levy L, Wall D, McCall J, Kosinski M, Weinstein A. Two controlled trials of antibiotic

    treatment in patients with persistent symptoms and a history of Lyme disease. N Engl J Med.

    2001 Jul 12;345(2):85-92.

    marked levels of fatigue, pain, and impaired physical functioning. (which was NOT entry criteria for the study)

    pain similar to post-surgery patients; fatigue similar multiple sclerosis patients; functional limitations comparable to CHF patients

    – Fallon BA, Keilp JG, Corbera KM, Petkova E, Britton CB, Dwyer E, Slavov I, Cheng J,

    Dobkin J, Nelson DR, Sackeim HA. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of repeated IV

    antibiotic therapy for Lyme encephalopathy. Neurology. 2007 Oct 10; [Epub ahead of print]

    Animal Data Persistent Infection Despite ABX

    Infected dogs received amoxicillin; azithromycin; ceftriaxone; or doxycycline for 30 days

    PCR positvity despite antibiotic treatment

    Corticosteroid treatment reactivated subclinical Lyme2

    – Straubinger RK, Straubinger AF, Summers BA, Jacobson RH, Erb HN.

    Clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, and effect of antibiotic treatment on Lyme borreliosis in dogs. Wien Klin Wochenschr 1998 Dec 23;110(24):874-81.

    -2Straubinger RK, Straubinger AF, Summers BA, Jacobson RH. Status of Borrelia burgdorferi infection after antibiotic treatment and the effects of corticosteroids: An experimental study. J Infect Dis. 2000 Mar;181(3):1069-81.

    Mice treated with doxycycline and ceftriaxone for 30 days

    Bb Culture Positive—from 40% 3 months after treatment

    PCR positive—6 & 9 months after antibiotic therapy.

    – Bockenstedt LK, Mao J, Hodzic E, Barthold SW, Fish D.

    Detection of attenuated, noninfectious spirochetes in Borrelia burgdorferi-infected mice after antibiotic treatment. J Infect Dis. 2002 Nov 15;186(10):1430-7.

    Mice were divided into 2 groups by stage of infection:

    Early disease–3 weeks duration & Late disease–4 months duration

    All mice were treated with 30 days ceftriaxone, then examined for persistent infection at 1 and 3 months later.

    Methods of examination were Culture, PCR, and Pathology as well as: Xenodiagnosis—Uninfected larval ticks fed on mice that have been infected, then treated. Ticks matured to nymphs and assessed for presence of B. burgdorferi by PCR.

    Allograft Transplantation—Tissues from mice that have been infected, then treated, were transplanted into mice without infection. These naïve mice were evaluated for infection by culture & PCR

    – Hodzic E, Feng S, Holden K, Freet KJ, Barthold SW. Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi following Antibiotic Treatment in Mice. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 May;52(5):1728-36. Epub 2008 Mar 3.

    Pathology PCR Xenodiag. Allograft

    Early infection

    1 month p-tx. 1/5(20%) 2/5(40%) 1/5(20%) Neg

    Early infection

    3 month p-tx. Neg 1/3 Not Done Neg 1/3(33%) Neg

    Late infection

    1 month p-tx. 3/8(38%) 1/8 Not Done 8/8(100%) 3/8(38%) Neg

    Late infection

    3 month p-tx. 1/5(20%) 2/5(40%) 2/5(40%) 1/5 (20%)

    8/9 (89%) of SCID mice exposed to xenodiagnosis positive ticks became infected with B. burgdorferi, by either culture or PCR

    – Hodzic E, Feng S, Holden K, Freet KJ, Barthold SW. Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi following Antibiotic Treatment in Mice. Antimicrob Agents Chemother.2008 May;52(5):1728-36. Epub 2008 Mar 3.

    Chronic Lyme Disease

    Verified Persistent Infection Despite Antibiotics

    30% Remained PCR Positive Despite Multiple Courses of ―Adequate Antibiotic Therapy

    – Nocton J J; Dressler F; Rutledge B J; Rys P N; Persing D H; Steere A C. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA by polymerase chain reaction in synovial fluid from patients with Lyme arthritis N. Engl. J. Med. 1994 Jan, 330:4, 229-34.

    ….DNA of heat-killed borrelia was not detectable for very long in skin tissue of an uninfected dog, implying that during natural infection the DNA of killed organisms is removed quickly and completely within a few days.”

    – Straubinger RK. PCR-Based quantification of Borrelia burgdorferi organisms in canine tissues over a 500-Day postinfection period. J Clin Microbiol. 2000 Jun;38(6):2191-9.

    74% Remained PCR Positive Despite Extended Antibiotic Therapy

    – Bayer M E; Zhang L; Bayer M H. Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in the urine of treated patients with chronic Lyme disease symptoms. A PCR study of 97 cases. Infection. 1996 Sep, 24:5, 347-53.

    165 Lyme patients treated for at least 3 months

    32 (19.4%) relapsed despite therapy

    38% of relapsers were culture or PCR positive

    We conclude that the treatment of Lyme borreliosis with appropriate antibiotics for even more than 3 months may not always eradicate the spirochete.

    -Oksi J, Marjamaki M, Nikoskelainen J, et al. Borrelia burgdorferi detected by culture and PCR in clinical relapse of disseminated Lyme borreliosis. Ann Med. 1999 Jun;31(3):225-232.

    Retrospective cohort study: 38 patients, 43 controls

    10/38 (26.3%) relapsed within 1 year of treatment

    13/38 (34.2%) had increased symptoms (musculoskeletal, neuropathic, or neurocognitive

    impairment) a mean of 6.2 years after symptom onset

    Patient #12 developed severe neurologic disease CSF Lyme antibody negative The patient died. Spirochetes present in brain biopsy.

    – Shadick NA, Phillips CB, Logigian EL, Steere AC, Kaplan RF, Berardi VP, Duray PH, Larson MG, Wright EA, Ginsburg KS, Katz JN, Liang MH. The long-term clinical outcomes of Lyme disease. A population-based retrospective cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 1994 Oct 15;121(8):560-7.

    64-year-old woman presented with bullous and ulcerating lichen sclerosus et atrophicus (LSA)

    Lyme serologies were repeatedly negative B. burgdorferi was isolated by live culture from

    from enlarging LSA lesions even after 4 courses of ceftriaxone. After 5th course of ceftriaxone, improvements in skin and negative cultures for B. burgdorferi

    – Breier F, Khanakah G, Stanek G, Kunz G, Aberer E, Schmidt B, Tappeiner G. Isolation and poly -merase chain reaction typing of Borrelia afzelii from a skin lesion in a seronegative patient with generalized ulcerating bullous lichen sclerosus et atrophicus.Br J Dermatol.2001Feb;144(2):387-92.

    Erythema migrans–Histopathology and PCR positive despite long term antibiotics

    -Liegner KB, Shapiro JR, Ramsay D, Halperin AJ, Hogrefe W, Kong L.

    Recurrent erythema migrans despite extended antibiotic treatment with minocycline in a patient with persisting Borrelia burgdorferi infection. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 1993 Feb;28(2 Pt 2):312-4.

    Erythema migrans–Culture positive oral antibiotic failure

    – Strle F, Maraspin V, Lotric-Furlan S, Ruzić-Sabljić E, Cimperman J. Azithromycin and doxycycline for treatment of Borrelia culture-positive erythema migrans. Infection. 1996 Jan-Feb;24(1):64-8.

    Skin–Culture positive despite repeated antibiotic treatments

    -Hudson BJ, Stewart M, Lennox VA, Fukunaga M, Yabuki M, Macorison H, Kitchener-Smith J. Culture-positive Lyme borreliosis. Med J Aust. 1998 May 18;168(10):500-2. 7 courses of IV antibiotics & 3 years continuous oral Although the patient never had detectable free antibodies to B. burgdorferi in serum or spinal fluid, the CSF was positive on multiple occasions for complexed anti-B.burgdorferi antibodies, B. burgdorferi nucleic acids and free antigen.

    -Lawrence C, Lipton RB, Lowy FD, Coyle PK Seronegative chronic relapsing neuroborreliosis. Eur. Neurol. 1995;35(2):113-7.

    chronic septic Lyme arthritis of the knee for seven years despite multiple antibiotic trials and multiple arthroscopic and open synovectomies.

    Spirochetes were documented in synovium and synovial fluid (SF). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the SF was consistent with Borrelia infection.

    – Battafarano DF, Combs JA, Enzenauer RJ, Fitzpatrick JE. Chronic septic arthritis caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. Clin Orthop 1993 Dec(297): 238-41.

    – Reimers CD, de Koning J, Neubert U, Preac Mursic V, Koster JG, Muller Felber W, Pongratz DE, Duray PH. Borrelia burgdorferi myositis:report of eight patients.J Neurol 1993 May; 240(5):278-83.

    – Honegr K, Hulinska D, Dostal V, Gebousky P, Hankova E, Horacek J, Vyslouzil L, Havlasova J. [Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in patients with Lyme borreliosis]. Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol 2001 Feb;50(1):10-6.

    – Mursic VP, Wanner G, Reinhardt S, Wilske B, Busch U, Marget W. Formation and cultivation of Borrelia burgdorferi spheroplast-L-form variants. Infection 1996 Jul-Aug;24(4):335.

    – López-Andreu JA, Ferrís J, Canosa CA, Sala-Lizárraga JV. Treatment of late Lyme disease: a challenge to accept. J Clin Microbiol. 1994 May;32(5):1415-6.

    – Oksi J, Kalimo H, Marttila RJ, Marjamaki M, Sonninen P, Nikoskelainen J, Viljanen MK. Inflammatory brain changes in Lyme borreliosis. A report on three patients and review of literature. Brain 1996 Dec; 119 ( Pt 6): 2143-54.

    ―Post-Lyme Fibromyalgia‖

    Verified Persistence of Infection Despite Antibiotics

    30% of Lyme patients who fail a short course of antibiotics meet diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia.

    – Bujak DI, Weinstein A, Dornbush RL. Clinical and neurocognitive features of the post Lyme syndrome. J Rheumatol. 1996 Aug;23(8):1392-7.

    Muscle Biopsies from Patients with ―PostLyme Fibromyalgia‖—Lyme PCR Positive

    – Frey M, Jaulhac B, Piemont Y, Marcellin L, Boohs PM, Vautravers P, Jesel M, Kuntz JL, Monteil H, Sibilia J. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in muscle of patients with chronic myalgia related to Lyme disease. Am J Med 1998 Jun;104(6):591-4.

    Chronic Lyme Disease

    Verified Persistence of Infection Despite Antibiotics

    – Meier P, Blatz R, Gau M, Spencker FB, Wiedemann P. [Pars plana vitrectomy in Borrelia burgdorferi endophthalmitis][German] Klin Monatsbl Augenheilkd 1998 Dec;213(6):351-4.

    – Cimmino MA, Azzolini A, Tobia F, Pesce CM. Spirochetes in the spleen of a patient with chronic Lyme disease. Am J Clin Pathol 1989 Jan;91(1):95-7.

    – Hulinska D, Votypka J, Valesova M. Persistence of Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii in patients with Lyme arthritis. Int J Med Microbiol Virol Parasitol Infect Dis 1999 Jul;289(3):301-18.

    – Schoen RT, Aversa JM, Rahn DW, Steere AC. Treatment of refractory chronic Lyme arthritis with arthroscopic synovectomy. Arthritis Rheum 1991 Aug; 34(8): 1056-60.

    – Kirsch M, Ruben FL, Steere AC, Duray PH, Norden CW, Winkelstein A. Fatal adult respiratory distress syndrome in a patient with Lyme disease. JAMA 1988 May 13; 259(18): 2737-9.

    – Preac-Mursic V, Weber K, Pfister HW, Wilske B, Gross B, Baumann A, Prokop J. Survival of Borrelia burgdorferi in antibiotically treated patients with Lyme borreliosis. Infection. 1989 Nov-Dec;17(6):355-9.

    – Aberer E, Kersten A, Klade H, Poitschek C, Jurecka W. Heterogeneity of Borrelia burgdorferi in the skin. Am J Dermatopathol. 1996 Dec;18(6):571-9.

    – Preac-Mursic V, Pfister HW, Spiegel H, Burk R, Wilske B, Reinhardt S, Bohmer R. First isolation of Borrelia burgdorferi from an iris biopsy. J. Clin. Neuroophthalmol. 1993 Sep;13(3):155-61.

    – Haupl T, Hahn G, Rittig M, Krause A, Schoerner C, Schonherr U, Kalden JR, Burmester GR. Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in ligamentous tissue from a patient with chronic Lyme borreliosis. Arthritis Rheum 1993 Nov; 36(11): 1621-6.

    – Hulinska D, Krausova M, Janovska D, Rohacova H, Hancil J, Mailer H. Electron microscopy and the polymerase chain reaction of spirochetes from the blood of patients with Lyme disease. Cent Eur J Public Health 1993 Dec; 1(2): 81-5.

    – Pfister HW, Preac-Mursic V, Wilske B, Schielke E, Sorgel F, Einhaupl KMJ.

    Randomized comparison of ceftriaxone and cefotaxime in Lyme neuroborreliosis.

    Infect. Dis. 1991 Feb;163(2):311-8.

    – Preac Mursic V, Marget W, Busch U, Pleterski Rigler D, Hagl S. Kill kinetics of Borrelia burgdorferi and bacterial findings in relation to the treatment of Lyme borreliosis. Infection. 1996 Jan-Feb;24(1):9-16.

    – Schmidli J, Hunziker T, Moesli P, Schaad UB. Cultivation of Borrelia burgdorferi from joint fluid three months after treatment of facial palsy due to Lyme borreliosis [letter]. J Infect Dis 1988 Oct; 158(4): 905-6.

    – Strle F, Preac-Mursic V, Cimperman J, Ruzic E, Maraspin V, Jereb M. Azithromycin versus doxycycline for treatment of erythema migrans: clinical and microbiological findings. Infection. 1993 Mar-Apr;21(2):83-8.

    7 of the previous 32 articles documenting, despite even aggressive antibiotic therapy, persistence of B. burgdorferi in chronic Lyme patients by live culture, histopathology, PCR and specific immune complexes were written by authors of the IDSA and NEJM papers referenced above

    Treatment Failure—Intracellular B. burgdorferi

    – Ma Y, Sturrock A, Weis JJ. Intracellular localization of Borrelia burgdorferi within human endothelial cells. Infect Immun 1991 Feb;59(2):671-8.

    – Dorward DW, Fischer ER, Brooks DM. Invasion and cytopathic killing of human lymphocytes by spirochetes causing Lyme disease. Clin Infect Dis 1997 Jul;25 Suppl 1:S2-8.

    – Montgomery RR, Nathanson MH, Malawista SE. The fate of Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent for Lyme disease, in mouse macrophages. Destruction, survival, recovery. J Immunol 1993 Feb 1;150(3):909-15.

    – Aberer E; Kersten A; Klade H; Poitschek C; Jurecka W. Heterogeneity of Borrelia burgdorferi in the skin. American Journal of Dermatopathology, 1996;18(6):571-9.

    – Girschick HJ, Huppertz HI, Russmann H, Krenn V, Karch H. Intracellular persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in human synovial cells. Rheumatol Int 1996;16(3):125-32.

    In these experiments, we demonstrated that fibroblasts and keratinocytes were able to protect B. burgdorferi from the action of this B-lactam antibiotic [ceftriaxone] even at antibiotic concentrations > or = 10 times the MBC of the antibiotic.‖

    – Klempner MS, Noring R, Rogers RA. Invasion of human skin fibroblasts by the Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi. J Infect Dis 1993 May;167(5):1074- 81.

    Documented immunosuppression due to B. burgdorferi

    – Hartiala P, Hytönen J, Suhonen J, Leppäranta O, Tuominen-Gustafsson H, Viljanen MK. Borrelia burgdorferi inhibits human neutrophil functions. Microbes Infect. 2008 Jan;10(1):60-8. Epub 2007 Oct 18.

    – Diterich I, Rauter C, Kirschning CJ, Hartung T. Borrelia burgdorferi-induced tolerance as a model of persistence via immunosuppression. Infect Immun. 2003 Jul;71(7):3979-87.

    B. Burgdorferi-Antibiotic Resistance


    resistance is increased by pre-exposure to the antibiotic

    – Terekhova D, Sartakova ML, Wormser GP, Schwartz I, Cabello FC. Erythromycin resistance in Borrelia burgdorferi. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002 Nov;46(11):3637-40

    Amoxicillin, Doxycycline, & Cefuroxime

    10% of isolates cefuroxime resistant without pre-exposure

    Pre-exposure to amoxicillin, cefuroxime & doxycycline increased resistance

    – Ruzić-Sabljić E, Podreka T, Maraspin V, Strle F. Susceptibility of Borrelia afzelii strains to antimicrobial agents. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2005 Jun;25(6):474-8.

    Pre-exposure to erythromycin, cefoxitin and tetracycline caused resistance to those drugs and drugs of the same family

    – Santino I, Scazzocchio F, Ciceroni L, Ciarrocchi S, Sessa R, Del Piano M. In vitro susceptibility of isolates of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. to antimicrobial agents. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2006 Jul-Sep;19(3):545-9.

    Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin A (MLS(A))

    – Jackson CR, Boylan JA, Frye JG, Gherardini FC. Evidence of a conjugal erythromycin resistance element in the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2007 Sep 28; [Epub ahead of print]


    – Galbraith KM, Ng AC, Eggers BJ, Kuchel CR, Eggers CH, Samuels DS.

    ParC mutations in fluoroquinolone-resistant Borrelia burgdorferi. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Oct;49(10):4354-7.

    Aminoglycosides & Spectinomycin

    – Criswell D, Tobiason VL, Lodmell JS, Samuels DS. Mutations conferring aminoglycoside and spectinomycin resistance in Borrelia burgdorferi.Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 Feb;50(2):445-52.

    Penicillin G—clinical case

    -Diringer MN, Halperin JJ, Dattwyler RJ. Lyme meningoencephalitis:report of a severe, penicillin-resistant case. Arthritis Rheum. 1987 Jun;30(6):705-8.

      Additional Persistence Mechanisms

      The extracellular matrix appears to provide a protective niche for the spirochete.

      – Cabello FC, Godfrey HP, Newman SA. Hidden in plain sight: Borrelia burgdorferi and the extracellular matrix. Trends Microbiol. 2007 Aug;15(8):350-4.

      borrelial persistence in some EM patients at the site of the infectious lesion despite antibiotic treatment over a reasonable time period.

      Borrelial persistence, however, was not caused by increasing MICs or minimal borreliacidal concentrations…

      – Hunfeld KP, Ruzic-Sabljic E, Norris DE, Kraiczy P, Strle F. In Vitro Susceptibility Testing of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Isolates Cultured from Patients with Erythema Migrans before and

      after Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Apr;49(4):1294-301.

      Re-Treatment Studies

      Only 3 NIH Funded Controlled Studies

      – Klempner MS, Hu LT, Evans J, Schmid CH, Johnson GM, Trevino RP, Norton D, Levy L, Wall D, McCall J, Kosinski M, Weinstein A. Two controlled trials of antibiotic treatment in patients

      with persistent symptoms and a history of Lyme disease. N Engl J Med. 2001 Jul 12;345(2):85-92.

      – Krupp LB, Hyman LG, Grimson R, Coyle PK, Melville P, Ahnn S, Dattwyler R, Chandler B. Study and treatment of post Lyme disease (STOP-LD): a randomized double masked clinical trial.

      Neurology. 2003 Jun 24;60(12):1923-30.

      – Fallon BA, Keilp JG, Corbera KM, Petkova E, Britton CB, Dwyer E, Slavov I, Cheng J, Dobkin J, Nelson DR, Sackeim HA. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of repeated IV antibiotic therapy

      for Lyme encephalopathy. Neurology. 2007 Oct 10; [Epub ahead of print]

      -Krupp: Chronic Lyme Re-Treatment

      55 chronic Lyme patients were randomized to received 4 weeks ceftriaxone vs placebo

      Targeted Clinical Outcomes:

      Improvements in Fatigue & Cognitive Abilities

      Fatigue improved.

      64% of ceftriaxone group vs 18.5% of placebo group.

      Cognition did not improve.

      although the patients with Lyme disease showed cognitive slowing compared to healthy controls, these deficits were relatively mild, which may have contributed to the lack of a treatment effect on cognition.

      Selection Bias:

      42.9% of ceftriaxone treated patients had already failed a mean of 6.3 weeks of prior ceftriaxone

      -Krupp: Chronic Lyme Re-Treatment

      Ceftriaxone patients more often guessed their treatment assignment.

      placebo effect may explain the greater improvement

      – Feder HM Jr, Johnson BJ, O’Connell S, Shapiro ED, Steere AC, Wormser GP; Ad Hoc International Lyme Disease Group A critical appraisal of “chronic Lyme disease”.N Engl J Med. 2007 Oct 4;357(14):1422-30.

      Evidence for lack of placebo effect:

      80% of seropositives improved vs 13% of seronegatives

      Seropositive patients are not better at guessing treatment assignment, but they have been shown to respond better to treatment of active Lyme by Luft et al.

      Subgroup analyses suggest that patients who had only received oral antibiotic therapy in the past were more likely to experience improvement

      Subgroup analyses further support that there was selection bias inherent to treatment of patients with ceftriaxone who have already failed ceftriaxone.

      -Fallon: Chronic Lyme Re-Treatment

      37 chronic Lyme patients were randomized to received 10 weeks ceftriaxone vs placebo.

      There were 20 healthy controls.

      Patients had met CDC surveillance case criteria.

      Cognitive testing revealed deficits across all domains with a marked difference in memory between chronic Lyme patients and healthy controls.

      Results at 12 week assessment:

      Ceftriaxone group had improvements in target clinical outcomes, ie cognitive improvements, fatigue, body pain.

      Placebo group did not demonstrate improvements.

      Results at 24 week assessment:

      Improvements persisted for fatigue and body pain, but cognitive abnormalities recurred since having discontinued antibiotics

      Fallon: Chronic Lyme Re-Treatment

      Selection bias:

      Patients had been ill for a mean of 1.7 years before the diagnosis was made.

      Patients had been ill for a mean of 9 years total.

      Patients had previously been treated with a mean of 2.5 months of IV antibiotics

      Despite selection bias:

      Improvements in cognition, fatigue, and body pain.

      Fallon study further supports the benefits seen in the Krupp study and indicates that further benefits can be achieved with longer term antibiotic therapy

      Klempner: Chronic Lyme Re-Treatment

      129 chronic Lyme patients-4 wks ceftriaxone then 2 months

      doxycycline vs placebo

      Study terminated early due to interim analysis indicating a likelihood of no benefit to re-treatment with this regimen in this sub-population

      Study deemed not generalizable due to selection bias.

      Patients had previously failed an average of 3 courses of abx

      33% of the patients had failed previous IV abx for 30 days.

      Patients had been ill for an average of 4.7 years

      – Cameron DJ. Generalizability in two clinical trials of Lyme disease. Epidemiol Perspect Innov. 2006 Oct 17;3:12.

      Study criticized due to flaws in design.

      – Bransfield R, Brand S, Sherr V. Treatment of patients with persistent symptoms and a history of Lyme disease. N Engl J Med. 2001 Nov 8;345(19):1424-5.

      – Donta ST. Treatment of patients with persistent symptoms and a history of Lyme disease. N Engl J Med. 2001 Nov 8;345(19):1424.

      – McCaulley ME. Treatment of patients with persistent symptoms and a history of Lyme disease. N Engl J Med. 2001 Nov 8;345(19):1424

      Re-Treatment Studies—Adverse Events

      – Krupp study

      1 out of the 28 (3.5%) ceftriaxone treated patients had a serious adverse event (anaphylaxis)

      – Klempner study

      2 out of the 64 (3.1%) ceftriaxone treated patients had a serious adverse event (pulmonary embolus in one and fever, anemia, and GI bleed in the other)

      – Fallon study

      6 out of the 23 (26.1%) ceftriaxone treated patients had an adverse event (2 with DVT, 3 with allergy, 1 with cholecystitis resulting in cholecystectomy)

      4/23 (17.4%) in ceftriaxone group had a serious adverse event*

      *In the text, it was not specified if the allergies were mild or serious, but based on personal communication with Dr. Fallon, 2 were mild, 1 was serious (allergy with FUO). Even the nonserious allergies were significant however in that they prompted removal from study

      Clearly, a prudent risk benefit analysis must be made

      Adverse Events—Suggested Research

      Primary and Secondary Prevention

      Could some of the adverse events associated with IV ceftriaxone in the Fallon, Krupp, and Klempner studies be minimized by performing the following?

      A baseline coagulopathy work up;

      A baseline abdominal sonogram, and a screening abdominal sonogram every 3 weeks of therapy;

      A sonogram of the upper extremity to rule out IV line induced DVT at 7 days of therapy and every 3 weeks thereafter;

      Weekly CBC with diff, ESR, CRP, and CMP

      Risk vs. Benefit—Putting Things in Perspective

      Antibiotics Are Far Safer than Many Medications

      Lymphoma due to infliximab (Remicade)

      – Mackey AC, Green L, Liang LC, Dinndorf P, Avigan M. Hepatosplenic T cell lymphoma associated with infliximab use in young patients treated for inflammatory bowel disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2007 Feb;44(2):265-7.

      – Tuberculosis due to infliximab (Remicade)

      – Raychaudhuri S, Shmerling R, Ermann J, Helfgott S. Development of active tuberculosis following initiation of infliximab despite appropriate prophylaxis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007 May;46(5):887-8.

      – Death due to infliximab (Remicade)

      – de’ Clari F, Salani I, Safwan E, Giannacco A. Sudden death in a patient without heart

      failure after a single infusion of 200 mg infliximab: does TNF-alpha have protective effects

      on the failing heart, or does infliximab have direct harmful cardiovascular effects?

      Circulation. 2002 May 28;105(21):E183.

      99.7% relapse rate upon discontinuation of infliximab (Remicade) after 3 years of continuous use by IV infusion

      – Baraliakos X, Listing J, Brandt J, Zink A, Alten R, Burmester G, GromnicaIhle E, Kellner H, Schneider M, Sörensen H, Zeidler H, Rudwaleit M, Sieper J, Braun J. Clinical response to discontinuation of anti-TNF therapy in patients with ankylosing spondylitis after 3 years of continuous treatment with infliximab. Arthritis Res Ther. 2005;7(3):R439-44.

      Consequences of Withholding Antibiotic Treatment

      Randomized retrospective case controlled study

      100 patients: 24 treatment failures, 76 treatment successes

      Treatment delay results in treatment failure

      Steroid treatment results in treatment failure

      Retrospective design ethically required—cannot purposefully withhold treatment

      – Cameron DJ. Consequences of treatment delay in Lyme disease. J Eval Clin Pract. 2007 Jun;13(3):470-2.

      Antibiotic treatment resulted in transient improvement, but the patient relapsed after the antibiotics were discontinued.

      Consequences of antibiotic discontinuation: Death.

      …prolonged antibiotic therapy may be necessary.

      – Waniek C, Prohovnik I, Kaufman MA, Dwork AJ. Rapidly progressive frontal-type dementia associated with Lyme disease. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1995 Summer;7(3):345-7.

      Chronic Lyme Disease—Brain Tissue

      How Do We Define ―Adequate Treatment?

      Case #1-Lyme fatality

      Brain lesions; Multiple CNS symptoms; Seronegative in serum and CSF; CSF cultured B. burgdorferi;

      Treated with ceftriaxone and then doxycycline for 8 months with relapse while still on oral antibiotics;

      Despite treatment, plasma & bone marrow PCR positive;

      Intravenous ceftriaxone re-started;

      Patient died of Lyme despite 10 months of antibiotics;

      Autopsy of Brain tissue: B. burgdorferi PCR positive.

      – Oksi J, Kalimo H, Marttila RJ, Marjamaki M, Sonninen P, Nikoskelainen J, Viljanen MK. Inflammatory brain changes in Lyme borreliosis. A report on three patients and review of literature.

      Brain 1996 Dec; 119 ( Pt 6): 2143-54.

      Success Only After Extremely Aggressive Antibiotics

      Case #2-Lyme, success only after aggressive treatment

      Brain lesions; Multiple CNS symptoms; Serologies-IgM pos, IgG neg (first pre-treatment sample only, thereafter both neg);

      CSF Ab Neg, CSF PCR Neg; Brain biopsy PCR Pos;

      Ceftriaxone x 3 wks, then amox/prob x 3 wks; New brain lesion, CSF PCR neg;

      Ceftriaxone x 4 wks with azithro & rifampin x 3 wks;

      3 new brain lesions; cefixime/prob x 100 days;

      Lesions getting smaller & no new ones; stopped antibiotics;

      6 mos later, new brain lesion; CSF PCR neg.; doxy 150mg tid x 4 months;

      Off abx x 4 months; New brain lesions; Plasma PCR positive;

      Ceftriaxone x 100 days; All lesions resolved. Plasma PCR neg x 3. End of tx.

      – Oksi J, Kalimo H, Marttila RJ, Marjamaki M, Sonninen P, Nikoskelainen J, Viljanen

      MK. Inflammatory brain changes in Lyme borreliosis. A report on three patients and review

      of literature. Brain 1996 Dec; 119 ( Pt 6): 2143-54.

      Treatment Studies—Late Lyme

      Large Study-Short vs. Long Term Antibiotics

      100 patients with late Lyme were treated as follows:

      ―Short periods of treatment were not generally effective.‖

      – Wahlberg P, Granlund H, Nyman D, Panelius J, Seppälä I.

      Treatment of late Lyme borreliosis. J Infect. 1994 Nov;29(3):255-61.

      Mixed Population of Disseminated Lyme

      152 patients received 3 weeks of ceftriaxone followed by either 100 days of amoxicillin or placebo

      Did not find adjunctive amoxicillin to be beneficial

      The number of enrolled patients did not reach the target to have sufficient power to make a definite conclusion about the lack of efficacy of the adjunctive treatment.‖

      Outcome measures were clinical impression—Not as well standardized as SF-36, or cognitive testing,

      Not a chronic Lyme population—Characteristics of a mixed population are different

      No serious adverse effects of antibiotic treatment(s) occurred in any of the 145 patients.

      – Oksi J, Nikoskelainen J, Hiekkanen H, Lauhio A, Peltomaa M, Pitkäranta A, Nyman D,

      Granlund H, Carlsson SA, Seppälä I, Valtonen V, Viljanen M. Duration of antibiotic

      treatment in disseminated Lyme borreliosis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled,

      multicenter clinical study. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2007 Aug;26(8):571-81.

      Treatment Studies—Lyme Arthritis

      7 prospectively studied patients:

      Responses to antibiotics; Relapses off treatment;

      Ultimate responses to longer term antibiotic therapy

      PCR positives were seen in some patients treated > 4 weeks

      All 38 laboratory controls were negative by PCR.‖

      Polymerase chain reaction was done four times with identical results…‖

      – Bradley JF, Johnson RC, Goodman JL. The persistence of spirochetal nucleic acids in active Lyme arthritis. Ann Intern Med. 1994 Mar 15;120(6):487-9

      Repeated courses of antibiotics can be beneficial for Lyme.

      A second month can be better than 1 month

      A third month can be better than 2 months

      – Steere AC, Angelis SM. Therapy for Lyme arthritis: Strategies for the treatment of antibiotic-refractory arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2006;54:3079–3086.

      Treatment Studies: Suggested Future Research

      Study Drugs Other Than Beta-Lactams

      Two open label trials have shown progressive benefits over time in a chronic Lyme sub-population treated with long term antibiotics that are not beta-lactams.

      Long term tetracycline

      – Donta ST. Tetracycline therapy for chronic Lyme disease. Clin Infect Dis 1997 Jul;25 Suppl 1:S52-6.

      Long term macrolide with hydroxychloroquine

      – Donta ST. Macrolide therapy of chronic Lyme Disease. Med Sci Monit. 2003 Nov;9(11):PI136-42.

      Hydroxychloroquine kills B. burgdorferi cystic forms in vitro

      – Brorson O, Brorson SH. An in vitro study of the susceptibility of mobile and cystic forms of Borrelia burgdorferi to hydroxychloroquine. Int Microbiol. 2002 Mar;5(1):25-31.

      B. Burgdorferi Spheroplasts/Cysts: In Vitro

      In regard to B. burgdorferi cyst forms -they may represent a strategy that facilitates the survival of B. burgdorferi

      – Alban PS; Johnson PW; Nelson DR. Serum-starvation-induced changes in protein synthesis and morphology of Borrelia burgdorferi. Microbiology Jan 2000;146 (Pt 1):119-27.

      Other authors believe cyst forms to be critical to the relapsing nature of the disease

      – Zajkowska JM; Hermanowska-Szpakowicz T; Pancewicz SA; Kondrusik M.

      Selected aspects of immunopathogenesis in Lyme disease. Pol Merkuriusz Lek, 2000 9(50):579-83.

      – Hermanowska-Szpakowicz T, Zajkowska JM, Pancewicz SA, Kondrusik M, Grygorczuk SS, Swierzbinska R. Pathogenetic-clinical problems of Lyme borreliosis Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2003;37 Suppl 2:29-38.

      B. Burgdorferi Spheroplasts/Cysts: In Vitro

      – Aberer E; Kersten A; Klade H; Poitschek C; Jurecka W. Heterogeneity of Borrelia burgdorferi in the skin. American Journal of Dermatopathology, 1996;18(6):571-9.

      – Angelov L; Dimova P; Berbencova W. Clinical and laboratory evidence of the importance of the tick D. marginatus as a vector of B. burgdorferi in some areas of sporadic Lyme disease in Bulgaria. European Journal of Epidemiology. 1996;12(5):499- 502.

      – Schaller M; Neubert Ultrastructure of Borrelia burgdorferi after exposure to benzylpenicillin. Infection, 1994 22(6):401-406.

      – Bruck DK; Talbot ML; Cluss RG; Boothby JT. Ultrastructural characterization of the stages of spheroplast preparation of Borrelia burgdorferi. J Microbiol. Methods, 1995 (23):219-228.

      – Mursic VP; Wanner G; Reinhardt S; Wilske B; Busch U; Marget W. Formation and cultivation of Borrelia burgdorferi spheroplast L-form variants. Infection 1996; 24(3):218-26.

      – Cluss RG; Goel AS; Rehm HL; Schoenecker JG; Boothby JT. Coordinate synthesis and turnover of heat shock proteins in Borrelia burgdorferi: degradation of DnaK during recovery from heat shock. Infection & Immunity, May1996;64(5):1736-43.

      – Kersten A; Poitschek C; Rauch S; Aberer E. Effects of penicillin, ceftriaxone, and doxycycline on the morphology of Borrelia burgdorferi.Antimicrobial Agents & Chemotherapy 1995;39(5):1127-33

      – Aberer E; Koszik F; Silberer M. Why is chronic Lyme borreliosis chronic? Clinical Infectious Diseases, 25 (Suppl 1), 1997 S64-S70.

      – Benach JL. Functional heterogeneity in the antibodies produced to Borrelia burgdorferi.

      Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, Dec1999;10;111(22-23):985-9.

      – Mursic VP; Wanner G; Reinhardt S; Wilske B; Busch U; Marget

      W. Formation and cultivation of Borrelia burgdorferi spheroplast Lform variants. Infection 1996; 24(3):218-26.

      – Phillips SE; Mattman LH; Hulinska D; Moayad H. A proposal for the reliable culture of Borrelia burgdorferi from patients with chronic Lyme disease, even from those previously aggressively treated. Infection 1998; 26(6):364-7.

      – Hulinska D; Jirous J; Valesova M; Hercogova J. Ultrastructure of Borrelia burgdorferi in tissues of patients with Lyme disease. J Basic Microbiol, 1989 29:73-83.

      – MacDonald AB. Concurrent neocortical borreliosis and Alzheimer’s disease: Demonstration of a spirochetal cyst form. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1988 539:468-470.

      – Mursic VP; Wanner G; Reinhardt S; Wilske B; Busch U; Marget W. Formation and cultivation of Borrelia burgdorferi spheroplast Lform variants. Infection 1996; 24(3):218-26.

      – Hulinska D; Bartak P; Hercogova J; Hancil J; Basta J;Schramlova J. Electron microscopy of Langerhans cells and Borrelia burgdorferi in Lyme disease patients. Zbl Bakt 1994;280:348-349.

      Information taken from Dr Steven Phillips slides that he presented to IDSA review – sadly no longer easily accessible, but it is important to share this knowledge that our Health Authorities are ignoring.
      The following 365 medical conditions are linked to Lyme disease (Borreliosis) either by cause or association. The list only includes medical conditions appearing in articles published in a medical journal. Go to the link and click on the condition to view information on the article

      Simple yet effective Lyme & Parasite cleanse

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